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Michigan high school shooting: shooter?s parents prosecuted for manslaughter
Hamilton and Bottas fly to Jeddah. Ferrari, Leclerc?s bad accident
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                    [title] => Michigan high school shooting: shooter?s parents prosecuted for manslaughter
                    [link] => https://bofads.com/world-news/michigan-high-school-shooting-shooters-parents-prosecuted-for-manslaughter/
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                            [creator] => Paula Hooper
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                    [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 19:37:43 +0000
                    [category] => World NewsmanslaughterMichiganparentsprosecutedschoolshootersShooting
                    [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7537
                    [description] => Flowers were laid in tribute to the students killed by a 15-year-old teenager at a high school in Oxford, Michigan, on November 30, 2021. SCOTT OLSON / AFP After a shooting killed four people on Tuesday in a high school in Michigan (northern United States), the parents of the teenager who opened fire were charged, ... Read more
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After a shooting killed four people on Tuesday in a high school in Michigan (northern United States), the parents of the teenager who opened fire were charged, Friday, December 3, with manslaughter, a Oakland County Prosecutor Karen McDonald announced.

The young student, aged 15, “Is the one who entered high school and pulled the trigger”, most “Other people contributed to this event, and I intend to hold them accountable”, she said, announcing the lawsuits against both parents.

Shootings remain a recurring scourge in the United States, a country where the right to own guns is constitutionally guaranteed. But lawsuits against relatives of their perpetrators are extremely rare. “I expect parents and everyone to show humanity and act to stop a potential tragedy”, explained Mme McDonald.

Parents summoned to high school two hours before the shooting

The teenager’s father had notably bought the semi-automatic pistol used by his son a few days earlier. After the purchase, the teenager practiced shooting and posted images of the gun on social media, clearly stating that it was his. The day of the shooting, the student was summoned with his parents by the school administration, after writing a message about suicide and death: ?Help me, my life is useless, the world is dead, blood everywhere. “

“To think that a parent could read these words knowing that their son had access to a lethal weapon he had given him is incomprehensible, and I think it is a crime”, said the prosecutor. She also blames the parents for not asking their son if he had his gun on him that day, or where it was, when the gun was in his backpack and he was allowed to go. go back to class.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers NRA under pressure after the Parkland massacre

Two hours after this meeting, he opened fire when he got out of the toilets, methodically progressing in the halls of the school and in particular pulling on the doors of the classes where the students had barricaded themselves. He fired at least thirty bullets. Upon news of a high school shooting, the teenager’s mother texted him, writing ” Do not do it “.

The local prosecutor had mentioned earlier this week a “Mountain of evidence online, on video or on social networks” showing that it was not “From an impulsive act”, but of an act “Totally premeditated”.

The teenager remains silent

The police also recovered from the accused’s cell phone a video recorded on Monday, in which he announced his intention to shoot students the next day, a plan he had also recorded in a diary found in his backpack.

Four high school students in this small Michigan town died, and six others were injured, along with a teacher. The shooter was arrested at the scene. He was indicted for “Terrorist act” and “Assassinations”. He risks life imprisonment because he is being prosecuted as if he were of legal age.

Read the report: Article reserved for our subscribers The ordeal of shooting survivors in the United States

His motive remains a mystery because he has not explained himself since his arrest and has chosen to remain silent during his appearance. He pleaded not guilty on Wednesday, through his lawyer. He has since been incarcerated in Pontiac prison, and held in solitary confinement.

Since the tragedy, Michigan authorities have been ” flooded “ messages of threats against schools in this state, creating a climate of psychosis within the population. More than sixty schools have been closed statewide due to “Threatening behavior”, according to Oakland County Police, adding that most of the threats were bogus.

The World with AFP

We wish to say thanks to the author of this article for this incredible content

Michigan high school shooting: shooter’s parents prosecuted for manslaughter

) [summary] => Flowers were laid in tribute to the students killed by a 15-year-old teenager at a high school in Oxford, Michigan, on November 30, 2021. SCOTT OLSON / AFP After a shooting killed four people on Tuesday in a high school in Michigan (northern United States), the parents of the teenager who opened fire were charged, ... Read more [atom_content] =>

After a shooting killed four people on Tuesday in a high school in Michigan (northern United States), the parents of the teenager who opened fire were charged, Friday, December 3, with manslaughter, a Oakland County Prosecutor Karen McDonald announced.

The young student, aged 15, “Is the one who entered high school and pulled the trigger”, most “Other people contributed to this event, and I intend to hold them accountable”, she said, announcing the lawsuits against both parents.

Shootings remain a recurring scourge in the United States, a country where the right to own guns is constitutionally guaranteed. But lawsuits against relatives of their perpetrators are extremely rare. “I expect parents and everyone to show humanity and act to stop a potential tragedy”, explained Mme McDonald.

Parents summoned to high school two hours before the shooting

The teenager’s father had notably bought the semi-automatic pistol used by his son a few days earlier. After the purchase, the teenager practiced shooting and posted images of the gun on social media, clearly stating that it was his. The day of the shooting, the student was summoned with his parents by the school administration, after writing a message about suicide and death: ?Help me, my life is useless, the world is dead, blood everywhere. “

“To think that a parent could read these words knowing that their son had access to a lethal weapon he had given him is incomprehensible, and I think it is a crime”, said the prosecutor. She also blames the parents for not asking their son if he had his gun on him that day, or where it was, when the gun was in his backpack and he was allowed to go. go back to class.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers NRA under pressure after the Parkland massacre

Two hours after this meeting, he opened fire when he got out of the toilets, methodically progressing in the halls of the school and in particular pulling on the doors of the classes where the students had barricaded themselves. He fired at least thirty bullets. Upon news of a high school shooting, the teenager’s mother texted him, writing ” Do not do it “.

The local prosecutor had mentioned earlier this week a “Mountain of evidence online, on video or on social networks” showing that it was not “From an impulsive act”, but of an act “Totally premeditated”.

The teenager remains silent

The police also recovered from the accused’s cell phone a video recorded on Monday, in which he announced his intention to shoot students the next day, a plan he had also recorded in a diary found in his backpack.

Four high school students in this small Michigan town died, and six others were injured, along with a teacher. The shooter was arrested at the scene. He was indicted for “Terrorist act” and “Assassinations”. He risks life imprisonment because he is being prosecuted as if he were of legal age.

Read the report: Article reserved for our subscribers The ordeal of shooting survivors in the United States

His motive remains a mystery because he has not explained himself since his arrest and has chosen to remain silent during his appearance. He pleaded not guilty on Wednesday, through his lawyer. He has since been incarcerated in Pontiac prison, and held in solitary confinement.

Since the tragedy, Michigan authorities have been ” flooded “ messages of threats against schools in this state, creating a climate of psychosis within the population. More than sixty schools have been closed statewide due to “Threatening behavior”, according to Oakland County Police, adding that most of the threats were bogus.

The World with AFP

We wish to say thanks to the author of this article for this incredible content

Michigan high school shooting: shooter’s parents prosecuted for manslaughter

[date_timestamp] => 1638560263 ) [1] => Array ( [title] => Hamilton and Bottas fly to Jeddah. Ferrari, Leclerc?s bad accident [link] => https://bofads.com/sport/hamilton-and-bottas-fly-to-jeddah-ferrari-leclercs-bad-accident/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tim Hall ) [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 19:33:12 +0000 [category] => SportaccidentbadBottasFerrariflyHamiltonJeddahLeclercs [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7534 [description] => In the free 2 best time of the Mercedes ahead of Gasly and Verstappen. The Monegasque slams 3 minutes from the end demolishing his SF21. Seventh time for Sainz Mercedes always ahead on Red Bull also on the new track in Jeddah. In the second free practice session of the Arabian GP Lewis Hamilton in ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

In the free 2 best time of the Mercedes ahead of Gasly and Verstappen. The Monegasque slams 3 minutes from the end demolishing his SF21. Seventh time for Sainz

Mercedes always ahead on Red Bull also on the new track in Jeddah. In the second free practice session of the Arabian GP Lewis Hamilton in 1’29 ?018 preceded team mate Valtteri Bottas and Pierre Gasly’s Alpha Tauri, trailing by 61 and 81 thousandths. Max Verstappen is fourth at just under 2 tenths, then at 4 tenths there is Fernando Alonso with the Alpine.

Comparisons

?

It was obviously a comparison session, with the cooler track for the evening lights and more rubberized after the afternoon session and the Formula 2 laps. Ferrari has the seventh fastest time with Carlos Sainz, also preceded by the second Alpine, that of Esteban. Or with. Eighth and ninth time for Yuki Tsunoda and the second Red Bull of Sergio Perez.

Charles slams

?

Charles Leclerc’s Ferrari has the tenth time, 7 tenths behind Hamilton’s time. But the Monegasque ended the session badly, losing the SF21 in turn 16 to the left: Spin at high speed and bang against barriers with severe damage to the car. Fortunately, no consequences for Charles who came out on his legs from the cockpit. Between the walls of the new Arab track all the drivers had been very careful up to that moment, apart from a mistake by Nikita Mazepin in turn 2: luckily for him, the Russian driver didn’t crash and started off again.

Pirelli investigations

?

Meanwhile, Pirelli has announced that it is conducting analyzes on the tires of the cars that have suffered deflation during the Qatar GP. The first findings have provided a first set of evidences that exclude production defects. Based on the findings obtained so far, the origin of the problem is mainly due to the prolonged residence time of the tires on the curbs, traveled at high speed and with high lateral and vertical loads, conditions determined by the unique characteristics of this circuit. The stresses induced by the curbs, the intensity of which cannot be deduced from the data available before the race, damaged the construction of the tires themselves, triggering a loss of pressure from the inner side which caused, after several seconds, the collapse of the structure.

The times of free practice 2

?

The times of the second free practice session of the Arabian GP:

F1 GP Arabia FP1 results

?

1. Hamilton (Mercedes) 1?29?018
2. Bottas (Mercedes) 1’29 ?079
3. Gasly (AlphaTauri) 1?29?099
4. Verstappen (Red Bull) 1?29?213
5. Alonso (Alpine) 1’29 “441
6. Ocon (Alpine) 1?29?555
7. Sainz (Ferrari) 1’29 ?589
8. Tsoda (AlphaTauri) 1’29 ?597
9. Perez (Red Bull) 1’29 ?768
10. Leclerc (Ferrari) 1’29 ?772
11. Ricciardo (McLaren) 1’29 ?968
12. Norris (McLaren) 1?30?004
13. Giovinazzi (Alfa Romeo) 1’30 ?110
14. Raikkonen (Alfa Romeo) 1’30 ?276
15. Stroll (Aston Martin) 1?30?442
16. Vettel (Aston Martin) 1?30?502
17. Russell (Williams) 1?30?506
18. Schumacher (Haas) 1’30 ?652
19. Latifi (Williams) 1?31?039
20. Mazepin (Haas) 1’31 ?629

Here’s how the first free practices of the Saudi Arabian GP ended (top ten).

1. Hamilton (Mercedes) 1:29.786
2. Verstappen (Red Bull) 1:29.842
3. Bottas (Mercedes) 1: 30.009
4. Gasly (AlphaTauri) 1:30.263
5. Giovinazzi (Alfa Romeo) 1: 30.318
6. Sainz (Ferrari) 1: 30.564
7. Leclerc (Ferrari) 1: 30.600
8. Ricciardo (McLaren) 1: 30.608
9. Alonso (Alpine) 1: 30.842
10. Vettel (Aston Martin) 1:30.886

We wish to give thanks to the author of this article for this outstanding content

Hamilton and Bottas fly to Jeddah. Ferrari, Leclerc’s bad accident

) [summary] => In the free 2 best time of the Mercedes ahead of Gasly and Verstappen. The Monegasque slams 3 minutes from the end demolishing his SF21. Seventh time for Sainz Mercedes always ahead on Red Bull also on the new track in Jeddah. In the second free practice session of the Arabian GP Lewis Hamilton in ... Read more [atom_content] =>

In the free 2 best time of the Mercedes ahead of Gasly and Verstappen. The Monegasque slams 3 minutes from the end demolishing his SF21. Seventh time for Sainz

Mercedes always ahead on Red Bull also on the new track in Jeddah. In the second free practice session of the Arabian GP Lewis Hamilton in 1’29 ?018 preceded team mate Valtteri Bottas and Pierre Gasly’s Alpha Tauri, trailing by 61 and 81 thousandths. Max Verstappen is fourth at just under 2 tenths, then at 4 tenths there is Fernando Alonso with the Alpine.

Comparisons

?

It was obviously a comparison session, with the cooler track for the evening lights and more rubberized after the afternoon session and the Formula 2 laps. Ferrari has the seventh fastest time with Carlos Sainz, also preceded by the second Alpine, that of Esteban. Or with. Eighth and ninth time for Yuki Tsunoda and the second Red Bull of Sergio Perez.

Charles slams

?

Charles Leclerc’s Ferrari has the tenth time, 7 tenths behind Hamilton’s time. But the Monegasque ended the session badly, losing the SF21 in turn 16 to the left: Spin at high speed and bang against barriers with severe damage to the car. Fortunately, no consequences for Charles who came out on his legs from the cockpit. Between the walls of the new Arab track all the drivers had been very careful up to that moment, apart from a mistake by Nikita Mazepin in turn 2: luckily for him, the Russian driver didn’t crash and started off again.

Pirelli investigations

?

Meanwhile, Pirelli has announced that it is conducting analyzes on the tires of the cars that have suffered deflation during the Qatar GP. The first findings have provided a first set of evidences that exclude production defects. Based on the findings obtained so far, the origin of the problem is mainly due to the prolonged residence time of the tires on the curbs, traveled at high speed and with high lateral and vertical loads, conditions determined by the unique characteristics of this circuit. The stresses induced by the curbs, the intensity of which cannot be deduced from the data available before the race, damaged the construction of the tires themselves, triggering a loss of pressure from the inner side which caused, after several seconds, the collapse of the structure.

The times of free practice 2

?

The times of the second free practice session of the Arabian GP:

F1 GP Arabia FP1 results

?

1. Hamilton (Mercedes) 1?29?018
2. Bottas (Mercedes) 1’29 ?079
3. Gasly (AlphaTauri) 1?29?099
4. Verstappen (Red Bull) 1?29?213
5. Alonso (Alpine) 1’29 “441
6. Ocon (Alpine) 1?29?555
7. Sainz (Ferrari) 1’29 ?589
8. Tsoda (AlphaTauri) 1’29 ?597
9. Perez (Red Bull) 1’29 ?768
10. Leclerc (Ferrari) 1’29 ?772
11. Ricciardo (McLaren) 1’29 ?968
12. Norris (McLaren) 1?30?004
13. Giovinazzi (Alfa Romeo) 1’30 ?110
14. Raikkonen (Alfa Romeo) 1’30 ?276
15. Stroll (Aston Martin) 1?30?442
16. Vettel (Aston Martin) 1?30?502
17. Russell (Williams) 1?30?506
18. Schumacher (Haas) 1’30 ?652
19. Latifi (Williams) 1?31?039
20. Mazepin (Haas) 1’31 ?629

Here’s how the first free practices of the Saudi Arabian GP ended (top ten).

1. Hamilton (Mercedes) 1:29.786
2. Verstappen (Red Bull) 1:29.842
3. Bottas (Mercedes) 1: 30.009
4. Gasly (AlphaTauri) 1:30.263
5. Giovinazzi (Alfa Romeo) 1: 30.318
6. Sainz (Ferrari) 1: 30.564
7. Leclerc (Ferrari) 1: 30.600
8. Ricciardo (McLaren) 1: 30.608
9. Alonso (Alpine) 1: 30.842
10. Vettel (Aston Martin) 1:30.886

We wish to give thanks to the author of this article for this outstanding content

Hamilton and Bottas fly to Jeddah. Ferrari, Leclerc’s bad accident

[date_timestamp] => 1638559992 ) [2] => Array ( [title] => In Kinshasa, city dwellers tackle the immense challenge of sanitation [link] => https://bofads.com/planet/in-kinshasa-city-dwellers-tackle-the-immense-challenge-of-sanitation/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Paula Hooper ) [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 19:16:40 +0000 [category] => PlanetchallengeCitydwellersimmenseKinshasasanitationtackle [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7531 [description] => Neither the storm nor the torrents of mud stop the garbage collectors in their frantic race behind the ?rickshaws?. Carts that they empty as soon as they can, before filling them again. The Saio district is home to one of the many illegal dumps in Kinshasa, where all kinds of waste pile up. At the ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Neither the storm nor the torrents of mud stop the garbage collectors in their frantic race behind the ?rickshaws?. Carts that they empty as soon as they can, before filling them again. The Saio district is home to one of the many illegal dumps in Kinshasa, where all kinds of waste pile up. At the top of the hill of rubbish, about twenty people rub shoulders with white herons, scavengers who feed on the rubbish of the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

For some bare feet and hands, gleaners are looking for plastic bottles. In the middle of this vast cesspool, Chris proudly displays full bags. “With my colleagues, we gathered 12 packs of 100 kg in two days”, rejoices this 24-year-old daily who, with his four friends, will sell each of these parcels for a little more than 33 euros to Clean Plast, a private recycling company.

Plastic then glitter

Founded in 2018, the company is located in one of the industrial zones near the city center of the megalopolis. Along the avenue of “heavy goods”, the chimneys of the largest factories in Kinshasa let out their black smoke. Behind the Clean Plast portal, a van unloads the collected plastic directly onto a scale. It will then be weighed, sorted, washed and crushed. ?We resell the glitter to Indian and Lebanese companies in particular. With, they make tables, chairs, basins, objects that we buy also here, all over the country ?, explains Alexander Bamanisa, founder of Clean Plast, which ultimately aims to “To manufacture these products himself”. Under the watchful eye of the Indian foreman, the Congolese workers operate the machines which shred old cans.

Daily workers of the company Clean Plast, in Kinshasa, November 19, 2021. Clean Plast is positioned as the leading recycling company in the DRC.
In the Clean Plast treatment center, in Kinshasa, DRC, on November 19, 2021.

Since his return to the DRC after his town planning studies in France, Alexander Bamanisa has been convinced that recycling is the future. This entrepreneur from a family of industrialists began by organizing the collection of raw material before embarking on its transformation. ?It took nearly two years to obtain approval and a public service delegation: normally the management of sanitation is the responsibility of the State. “ Today, his company works with nearly 3,000 plastic gleaners who go to one of the 16 collection points across the city, most of them adjacent to public waste reception centers.

?We end up with entire districts whose roads are impassable for garbage trucks, without gutters and without dumpsters. »Joël Kyana, town planner

Out of sixty landfills built by the European Union as part of the sanitation support program, which ended in 2015, only ten are still in operation in Kinshasa. In one of them, located in Ngiri-Ngiri commune, women set up tables to serve a local dish, foufou, at lunch break, in the middle of the rubbish. And in the “city”, the immense suburbs of the capital, there is no need to wait for the passage of one of the twenty collection trucks of the Raskin, the municipal sanitation authority. Here, the majority of household waste is collected by informal garbage collectors who pile it up in illegal deposits, in exchange for a few Congolese francs.

?The authorities are observing but not planning anything. We end up with entire districts whose roads are impassable for garbage trucks, without gutters and without dumpsters ?, notes town planner Joël Kyana. “And demographic pressure does not help”, continues the teacher at the Higher Institute of Urban Planning and Architecture. Today, no one knows exactly how many inhabitants there are in the first French-speaking city in the world. Twelve, fifteen, eighteen million or more, the total varies according to the sources. But one thing is certain: the only landfill center available for the 24 municipalities is not enough to swallow the waste of all Kinshasa residents. « Nine thousand tons are produced per day. And we take away less than 10% “, Deplores Germain Mpundu, coordinator of the municipal Kin Bopeto project, of Lingala – the language most spoken in the west of the country – which means” clean Kinshasa “.

This program has so far focused almost exclusively on Gombe, the bustling business center. Every day, the wide crossroads are swept and the sewers are cleaned, but the garbage has still not disappeared from the landscape. Here, the sorting bins installed every hundred meters remain empty and the bottles or cans are thrown on the ground next to them. To change habits, we must “Change mentalities and teach city dwellers to make cleanliness a priority”, urges the official. A task all the more difficult given that Kin Bopeto’s budget, adopted in October 2019, was cut by 30% three months later: because of the Covid-19, the Congolese government reduced all public spending.

Today, local private companies are therefore replacing the State in terms of sanitation. A dozen have embarked on recycling, according to city hall estimates. “There is a real enthusiasm for environmental themes among business creators”, assures Laurianne Kamuyi, a Congolese woman sensitized to this issue during her studies in South Korea. In 2015, when she was about to return to spend her vacation in the DRC, the young woman was arrested by the Korean police. ?I was told: ‘Madam, you are a repeat offender!’ At first I thought it was a bad joke. I was told that I hadn’t sorted my trash correctly for a year! And I had to pay over $ 1,000 in fines [soit près de 900 euros]», she says. After this shock, the idea of ??changing things in her country never left her.

Privatize collection

On this November morning, the graduate in human resources management is preparing to present her waste sorting and collection project in front of an audience of Belgian investors in Silkin Village, one of the start-up incubators in the capital. “I am the only Congolese woman to undertake in this sector”, she claims from the start of her intervention. Its objective is to raise as much funds as possible to expand its ambitions.

In Kinshasa, DRC, November 21 and 17, 2021: on the left, view of the Makelele river on avenue OUA, a point frequently submerged during the rainy season due to the accumulation of plastic waste.  On the right, view of the Boulevard du 30 Juin from the central station.
The Funa-Yolo river at its connection to the Congo River in Kinshasa-Gombe, DRC, on November 19, 2021.

In January 2019, Laurianne Kamuyi launched her first initiative at Camp Riche, a popular area of ??the city. Supported by a dozen garbage collectors, she went door to door and convinced more than 200 families to subscribe to her private service. “At the beginning, we offered compensation to motivate them to sort and then, gradually, the practice took hold”, she congratulates herself. A larger program, with the objective of retaining 1 million households by 2023, will be launched next January: home collection of garbage, already sorted, for 1 dollar per month. An offer well below the current market since the Kinshasa people spend an average of 10 dollars per month for sanitation services, according to a study carried out by the Pyramide Business firm for the governorate of the agglomeration.

The entrepreneur thus intends to boost the circular economy in the sector by responding to the demand of local recyclers. ?We can easily supply them in glass, plastic or cardboard. ” For the moment, these companies do not have access to the raw material since the waste is scattered in the immense capital.

This article was produced in the framework of a partnership with the Veolia Institute.

Summary of our series “African cities facing their future”

We would like to thank the author of this short article for this remarkable material

In Kinshasa, city dwellers tackle the immense challenge of sanitation

) [summary] => Neither the storm nor the torrents of mud stop the garbage collectors in their frantic race behind the ?rickshaws?. Carts that they empty as soon as they can, before filling them again. The Saio district is home to one of the many illegal dumps in Kinshasa, where all kinds of waste pile up. At the ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Neither the storm nor the torrents of mud stop the garbage collectors in their frantic race behind the ?rickshaws?. Carts that they empty as soon as they can, before filling them again. The Saio district is home to one of the many illegal dumps in Kinshasa, where all kinds of waste pile up. At the top of the hill of rubbish, about twenty people rub shoulders with white herons, scavengers who feed on the rubbish of the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

For some bare feet and hands, gleaners are looking for plastic bottles. In the middle of this vast cesspool, Chris proudly displays full bags. “With my colleagues, we gathered 12 packs of 100 kg in two days”, rejoices this 24-year-old daily who, with his four friends, will sell each of these parcels for a little more than 33 euros to Clean Plast, a private recycling company.

Plastic then glitter

Founded in 2018, the company is located in one of the industrial zones near the city center of the megalopolis. Along the avenue of “heavy goods”, the chimneys of the largest factories in Kinshasa let out their black smoke. Behind the Clean Plast portal, a van unloads the collected plastic directly onto a scale. It will then be weighed, sorted, washed and crushed. ?We resell the glitter to Indian and Lebanese companies in particular. With, they make tables, chairs, basins, objects that we buy also here, all over the country ?, explains Alexander Bamanisa, founder of Clean Plast, which ultimately aims to “To manufacture these products himself”. Under the watchful eye of the Indian foreman, the Congolese workers operate the machines which shred old cans.

Daily workers of the company Clean Plast, in Kinshasa, November 19, 2021. Clean Plast is positioned as the leading recycling company in the DRC.
In the Clean Plast treatment center, in Kinshasa, DRC, on November 19, 2021.

Since his return to the DRC after his town planning studies in France, Alexander Bamanisa has been convinced that recycling is the future. This entrepreneur from a family of industrialists began by organizing the collection of raw material before embarking on its transformation. ?It took nearly two years to obtain approval and a public service delegation: normally the management of sanitation is the responsibility of the State. “ Today, his company works with nearly 3,000 plastic gleaners who go to one of the 16 collection points across the city, most of them adjacent to public waste reception centers.

?We end up with entire districts whose roads are impassable for garbage trucks, without gutters and without dumpsters. »Joël Kyana, town planner

Out of sixty landfills built by the European Union as part of the sanitation support program, which ended in 2015, only ten are still in operation in Kinshasa. In one of them, located in Ngiri-Ngiri commune, women set up tables to serve a local dish, foufou, at lunch break, in the middle of the rubbish. And in the “city”, the immense suburbs of the capital, there is no need to wait for the passage of one of the twenty collection trucks of the Raskin, the municipal sanitation authority. Here, the majority of household waste is collected by informal garbage collectors who pile it up in illegal deposits, in exchange for a few Congolese francs.

?The authorities are observing but not planning anything. We end up with entire districts whose roads are impassable for garbage trucks, without gutters and without dumpsters ?, notes town planner Joël Kyana. “And demographic pressure does not help”, continues the teacher at the Higher Institute of Urban Planning and Architecture. Today, no one knows exactly how many inhabitants there are in the first French-speaking city in the world. Twelve, fifteen, eighteen million or more, the total varies according to the sources. But one thing is certain: the only landfill center available for the 24 municipalities is not enough to swallow the waste of all Kinshasa residents. « Nine thousand tons are produced per day. And we take away less than 10% “, Deplores Germain Mpundu, coordinator of the municipal Kin Bopeto project, of Lingala – the language most spoken in the west of the country – which means” clean Kinshasa “.

This program has so far focused almost exclusively on Gombe, the bustling business center. Every day, the wide crossroads are swept and the sewers are cleaned, but the garbage has still not disappeared from the landscape. Here, the sorting bins installed every hundred meters remain empty and the bottles or cans are thrown on the ground next to them. To change habits, we must “Change mentalities and teach city dwellers to make cleanliness a priority”, urges the official. A task all the more difficult given that Kin Bopeto’s budget, adopted in October 2019, was cut by 30% three months later: because of the Covid-19, the Congolese government reduced all public spending.

Today, local private companies are therefore replacing the State in terms of sanitation. A dozen have embarked on recycling, according to city hall estimates. “There is a real enthusiasm for environmental themes among business creators”, assures Laurianne Kamuyi, a Congolese woman sensitized to this issue during her studies in South Korea. In 2015, when she was about to return to spend her vacation in the DRC, the young woman was arrested by the Korean police. ?I was told: ‘Madam, you are a repeat offender!’ At first I thought it was a bad joke. I was told that I hadn’t sorted my trash correctly for a year! And I had to pay over $ 1,000 in fines [soit près de 900 euros]», she says. After this shock, the idea of ??changing things in her country never left her.

Privatize collection

On this November morning, the graduate in human resources management is preparing to present her waste sorting and collection project in front of an audience of Belgian investors in Silkin Village, one of the start-up incubators in the capital. “I am the only Congolese woman to undertake in this sector”, she claims from the start of her intervention. Its objective is to raise as much funds as possible to expand its ambitions.

In Kinshasa, DRC, November 21 and 17, 2021: on the left, view of the Makelele river on avenue OUA, a point frequently submerged during the rainy season due to the accumulation of plastic waste.  On the right, view of the Boulevard du 30 Juin from the central station.
The Funa-Yolo river at its connection to the Congo River in Kinshasa-Gombe, DRC, on November 19, 2021.

In January 2019, Laurianne Kamuyi launched her first initiative at Camp Riche, a popular area of ??the city. Supported by a dozen garbage collectors, she went door to door and convinced more than 200 families to subscribe to her private service. “At the beginning, we offered compensation to motivate them to sort and then, gradually, the practice took hold”, she congratulates herself. A larger program, with the objective of retaining 1 million households by 2023, will be launched next January: home collection of garbage, already sorted, for 1 dollar per month. An offer well below the current market since the Kinshasa people spend an average of 10 dollars per month for sanitation services, according to a study carried out by the Pyramide Business firm for the governorate of the agglomeration.

The entrepreneur thus intends to boost the circular economy in the sector by responding to the demand of local recyclers. ?We can easily supply them in glass, plastic or cardboard. ” For the moment, these companies do not have access to the raw material since the waste is scattered in the immense capital.

This article was produced in the framework of a partnership with the Veolia Institute.

Summary of our series “African cities facing their future”

We would like to thank the author of this short article for this remarkable material

In Kinshasa, city dwellers tackle the immense challenge of sanitation

[date_timestamp] => 1638559000 ) [3] => Array ( [title] => Pope Francis denounces ?the story of universal slavery? in the course of migrants [link] => https://bofads.com/world-news/pope-francis-denounces-the-story-of-universal-slavery-in-the-course-of-migrants/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Paula Hooper ) [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 18:56:14 +0000 [category] => World NewsdenouncesFrancismigrantsPopeslaverystoryuniversal [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7528 [description] => Pope Francis leaves, after an ecumenical prayer, with migrants to the Church of the Holy Cross, in Nicosia (Cyprus), on December 3, 2021. GUGLIELMO MANGIAPANE / REUTERS They are perhaps two hundred to three hundred to hurry, the afternoon of Friday, December 3, in front of the neo-Romanesque parish Church of the Holy Cross, meeting ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

They are perhaps two hundred to three hundred to hurry, the afternoon of Friday, December 3, in front of the neo-Romanesque parish Church of the Holy Cross, meeting point of the Catholic community of Nicosia. These refugees, who have often come with their families, await Pope Francis on the second day of his visit to Cyprus. A dozen of them will be transferred to Rome, by Christmas, at the initiative of the Vatican and with the logistical support of the Community of Sant’Egidio. The day before, the Cypriot president, Nicos Anastasiades, even mentioned the number of fifty.

Among them, Syrians, Congolese, Cameroonians? Not all will benefit from this possibility, even if many dream of it. Iman, a mother of four who came from Iraq in 2018, hopes so for her and her family. “My situation is very bad, she says. I have neither money nor work. I am a Muslim, but for me Muslims and Christians are brothers. I want to go to Rome with my family. I hope I can do it. “

A wide range of nationalities and religions awaits in the small church. The Pope has planned to preside over a “Ecumenical prayer with migrants”. But before arriving at prayer, the head of the Catholic Church chooses to leave his written speech to launch a heavy charge against those who make the migrant route a sometimes fatal journey.

It is addressed to the four refugees from Sri Lanka, Cameroon, Iraq and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, who have just read a brief account describing the concealment of their person, their plans, their dreams behind their status as refugees. asylum seeker, undocumented, refugee. He asks Christians, as his text provided, to “Not to resign yourself to a divided world” but to move towards “A humanity without walls of separation, (?) no longer with foreigners but only with fellow citizens. Different, of course, and proud of our particularities, which are a gift from God, but reconciled fellow citizens ?.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers In Cyprus and Greece, Pope Francis’ plea for a more fraternal Mediterranean

“The culture of indifference”

Then, improvising, Pope Francis is more and more indignant at the fate of migrants who try to reach Europe. He denounces “The culture of indifference” from “People who have everything” : ?It’s so easy to look away! “

“You got here, but how many stayed on the way? “

Then he adds a long codicil to his speech. “You got here, but how many stayed on the way? Seeing you, I see the suffering of the way. It is the story of universal slavery. The worst part is that you get used to it. It is a very serious illness. I also see those who had to go back, sometimes because they were pushed back, and who end up in a storage. » The Argentine Pope has already used this German term, which referred to Nazi concentration and extermination camps, on several occasions to describe the places where smugglers and traffickers detain and exploit migrants, especially in Libya.

You have 46.36% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We would love to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this incredible web content

Pope Francis denounces “the story of universal slavery” in the course of migrants

) [summary] => Pope Francis leaves, after an ecumenical prayer, with migrants to the Church of the Holy Cross, in Nicosia (Cyprus), on December 3, 2021. GUGLIELMO MANGIAPANE / REUTERS They are perhaps two hundred to three hundred to hurry, the afternoon of Friday, December 3, in front of the neo-Romanesque parish Church of the Holy Cross, meeting ... Read more [atom_content] =>

They are perhaps two hundred to three hundred to hurry, the afternoon of Friday, December 3, in front of the neo-Romanesque parish Church of the Holy Cross, meeting point of the Catholic community of Nicosia. These refugees, who have often come with their families, await Pope Francis on the second day of his visit to Cyprus. A dozen of them will be transferred to Rome, by Christmas, at the initiative of the Vatican and with the logistical support of the Community of Sant’Egidio. The day before, the Cypriot president, Nicos Anastasiades, even mentioned the number of fifty.

Among them, Syrians, Congolese, Cameroonians? Not all will benefit from this possibility, even if many dream of it. Iman, a mother of four who came from Iraq in 2018, hopes so for her and her family. “My situation is very bad, she says. I have neither money nor work. I am a Muslim, but for me Muslims and Christians are brothers. I want to go to Rome with my family. I hope I can do it. “

A wide range of nationalities and religions awaits in the small church. The Pope has planned to preside over a “Ecumenical prayer with migrants”. But before arriving at prayer, the head of the Catholic Church chooses to leave his written speech to launch a heavy charge against those who make the migrant route a sometimes fatal journey.

It is addressed to the four refugees from Sri Lanka, Cameroon, Iraq and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, who have just read a brief account describing the concealment of their person, their plans, their dreams behind their status as refugees. asylum seeker, undocumented, refugee. He asks Christians, as his text provided, to “Not to resign yourself to a divided world” but to move towards “A humanity without walls of separation, (?) no longer with foreigners but only with fellow citizens. Different, of course, and proud of our particularities, which are a gift from God, but reconciled fellow citizens ?.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers In Cyprus and Greece, Pope Francis’ plea for a more fraternal Mediterranean

“The culture of indifference”

Then, improvising, Pope Francis is more and more indignant at the fate of migrants who try to reach Europe. He denounces “The culture of indifference” from “People who have everything” : ?It’s so easy to look away! “

“You got here, but how many stayed on the way? “

Then he adds a long codicil to his speech. “You got here, but how many stayed on the way? Seeing you, I see the suffering of the way. It is the story of universal slavery. The worst part is that you get used to it. It is a very serious illness. I also see those who had to go back, sometimes because they were pushed back, and who end up in a storage. » The Argentine Pope has already used this German term, which referred to Nazi concentration and extermination camps, on several occasions to describe the places where smugglers and traffickers detain and exploit migrants, especially in Libya.

You have 46.36% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We would love to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this incredible web content

Pope Francis denounces “the story of universal slavery” in the course of migrants

[date_timestamp] => 1638557774 ) [4] => Array ( [title] => Perovskite solar cells soar to new heights [link] => https://bofads.com/healthandscience/perovskite-solar-cells-soar-to-new-heights/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 18:25:20 +0000 [category] => Health And SciencecellsheightsPerovskitesoarsolar [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7526 [description] => Journal Reference: Matteo Degani, Qingzhi An, Miguel Albaladejo-Siguan, Yvonne J. Hofstetter, Changsoon Cho, Fabian Paulus, Giulia Grancini, Yana Vaynzof. 23.7% Efficient inverted perovskite solar cells by dual interfacial modification. Science Advances, 2021; 7 (49) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abj7930 In a joint collaborative effort between the University of Pavia (Italy) and the Technische Universität Dresden (Germany), researchers have ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Matteo Degani, Qingzhi An, Miguel Albaladejo-Siguan, Yvonne J. Hofstetter, Changsoon Cho, Fabian Paulus, Giulia Grancini, Yana Vaynzof. 23.7% Efficient inverted perovskite solar cells by dual interfacial modification. Science Advances, 2021; 7 (49) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abj7930

In a joint collaborative effort between the University of Pavia (Italy) and the Technische Universität Dresden (Germany), researchers have developed a novel method to significantly improve the efficiency of inverted architecture solar cells. The method is based on a modification of the interfaces of the perovskite active layer by introducing small amounts of organic halide salts at both the bottom and the top of the perovskite layer. Such organic halide salts, typically used for the formation of two-dimensional perovskites, led to the suppression of microstructural flaws and passivation of the defects of the perovskite layer. Using this approach, the team has achieved a power conversion efficiency of 23.7% ? the highest reported to date for an inverted architecture perovskite solar cell.

?Importantly, the improvement in performance is accompanied by an increase in device stability? says Prof. Giulia Grancini, an Associate Professor of Chemistry at the University of Pavia. Considering that stability remains one of the key hurdles for the commercialization of perovskite solar cells, the simultaneous improvement of efficiency and stability is particularly promising.

?The fact that our devices are fabricated at low temperatures of less than 100° C and that our approach is fully applicable to the fabrication of large area devices takes us one step closer to large-scale utilization of perovskite solar cells? adds Prof. Yana Vaynzof, Chair for Emerging Electronic Technologies at the Institute for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials and the Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed).

The record efficiency achieved by the researchers brings perovskite solar cells to new frontiers. Considering the enhanced stability and the scalability of the novel approach, it?s only a matter of time until perovskite solar cells can be found on every rooftop.

We would love to say thanks to the author of this short article for this remarkable content

Perovskite solar cells soar to new heights

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Matteo Degani, Qingzhi An, Miguel Albaladejo-Siguan, Yvonne J. Hofstetter, Changsoon Cho, Fabian Paulus, Giulia Grancini, Yana Vaynzof. 23.7% Efficient inverted perovskite solar cells by dual interfacial modification. Science Advances, 2021; 7 (49) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abj7930 In a joint collaborative effort between the University of Pavia (Italy) and the Technische Universität Dresden (Germany), researchers have ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Matteo Degani, Qingzhi An, Miguel Albaladejo-Siguan, Yvonne J. Hofstetter, Changsoon Cho, Fabian Paulus, Giulia Grancini, Yana Vaynzof. 23.7% Efficient inverted perovskite solar cells by dual interfacial modification. Science Advances, 2021; 7 (49) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abj7930

In a joint collaborative effort between the University of Pavia (Italy) and the Technische Universität Dresden (Germany), researchers have developed a novel method to significantly improve the efficiency of inverted architecture solar cells. The method is based on a modification of the interfaces of the perovskite active layer by introducing small amounts of organic halide salts at both the bottom and the top of the perovskite layer. Such organic halide salts, typically used for the formation of two-dimensional perovskites, led to the suppression of microstructural flaws and passivation of the defects of the perovskite layer. Using this approach, the team has achieved a power conversion efficiency of 23.7% ? the highest reported to date for an inverted architecture perovskite solar cell.

?Importantly, the improvement in performance is accompanied by an increase in device stability? says Prof. Giulia Grancini, an Associate Professor of Chemistry at the University of Pavia. Considering that stability remains one of the key hurdles for the commercialization of perovskite solar cells, the simultaneous improvement of efficiency and stability is particularly promising.

?The fact that our devices are fabricated at low temperatures of less than 100° C and that our approach is fully applicable to the fabrication of large area devices takes us one step closer to large-scale utilization of perovskite solar cells? adds Prof. Yana Vaynzof, Chair for Emerging Electronic Technologies at the Institute for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials and the Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed).

The record efficiency achieved by the researchers brings perovskite solar cells to new frontiers. Considering the enhanced stability and the scalability of the novel approach, it?s only a matter of time until perovskite solar cells can be found on every rooftop.

We would love to say thanks to the author of this short article for this remarkable content

Perovskite solar cells soar to new heights

[date_timestamp] => 1638555920 ) [5] => Array ( [title] => Prosecuted for ?charlatanism?, Professor Didier Raoult receives a symbolic sanction [link] => https://bofads.com/planet/prosecuted-for-charlatanism-professor-didier-raoult-receives-a-symbolic-sanction/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Paula Hooper ) [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 18:22:32 +0000 [category] => PlanetcharlatanismDidierprofessorprosecutedRaoultreceivessanctionsymbolic [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7523 [description] => Professor Didier Raoult, the boss of the Marseille University Hospital Institute for Infectious Diseases (IHU), during a press conference on Covid-19, in Marseille, August 27, 2020. CHRISTOPHE SIMON / AFP A blame for Professor Raoult. The council of the New Aquitaine order sanctioned the Marseille microbiologist on Friday 3 December, targeted since the end of ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

A blame for Professor Raoult. The council of the New Aquitaine order sanctioned the Marseille microbiologist on Friday 3 December, targeted since the end of 2020 by two complaints from the national order of physicians and the departmental order of Bouches-du-Rhône . The elements which motivated this symbolic sanction, the second in order of importance after the simple warning, will not be officially made public by the ordinary judges until Tuesday, December 7. It is not yet known whether the boss of the University Hospital Institute for Infectious Diseases (IHU) Méditerranée Infection in Marseille is sanctioned for having prescribed a protocol based on hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of Covid-19 or for his communication methods. .

On November 5, Didier Raoult traveled in person to Bordeaux to face his peers. The hearing, led by a magistrate accompanied by eight doctors, had been relocated to Gironde to escape the Marseille microcosm where the frontal methods of the controversial director of the IHU, former dean of the faculty of medicine and president of the university, generate both unwavering support and stubborn enmities.

Explanations: Article reserved for our subscribers Didier Raoult pushed towards the exit by the partners of the Marseille university hospital institute

At the end of 2020, across the country, many practitioners complained to their authorities of being harassed by patients claiming, sometimes brutally, to be treated with hydroxychloroquine, the molecule praised by Professor Raoult and his teams. . Reports which pushed the departmental order of Bouches-du-Rhône, then the national order, to take up the case. Didier Raoult was thus accused of having violated several articles of the code of ethics and was answerable for acts of “Charlatanisme” for having prescribed his protocol “Without established scientific data”, and of “Breaches of its duties of brotherhood”.

“Trial of success”

At the hearing, his lawyer, the very media-oriented Fabrice Di Vizio, denounced a lawsuit filed because of the criticisms formulated by the microbiologist on the management of the Covid-19 crisis by the health authorities. Didier Raoult saw it as the “trial of success”, still believing, despite the lack of scientific evidence, that his protocol is effective against the coronavirus. Before the ordinal chamber, the public rapporteur recalled that several international randomized studies had concluded the opposite. ” It’s the doctors who complain about us, not the patients “, Assured, in response the boss of the IHU, affirming to have received” 600,000 people ?Within its Marseille structure since the start of the pandemic. Philippe Carlini, lawyer of the order of doctors of Bouches-du-Rhône, considered him, on the contrary, that the proceedings had been initiated to support “Heroic liberal doctors”.

You have 49.03% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We want to say thanks to the writer of this short article for this outstanding content

Prosecuted for “charlatanism”, Professor Didier Raoult receives a symbolic sanction

) [summary] => Professor Didier Raoult, the boss of the Marseille University Hospital Institute for Infectious Diseases (IHU), during a press conference on Covid-19, in Marseille, August 27, 2020. CHRISTOPHE SIMON / AFP A blame for Professor Raoult. The council of the New Aquitaine order sanctioned the Marseille microbiologist on Friday 3 December, targeted since the end of ... Read more [atom_content] =>

A blame for Professor Raoult. The council of the New Aquitaine order sanctioned the Marseille microbiologist on Friday 3 December, targeted since the end of 2020 by two complaints from the national order of physicians and the departmental order of Bouches-du-Rhône . The elements which motivated this symbolic sanction, the second in order of importance after the simple warning, will not be officially made public by the ordinary judges until Tuesday, December 7. It is not yet known whether the boss of the University Hospital Institute for Infectious Diseases (IHU) Méditerranée Infection in Marseille is sanctioned for having prescribed a protocol based on hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of Covid-19 or for his communication methods. .

On November 5, Didier Raoult traveled in person to Bordeaux to face his peers. The hearing, led by a magistrate accompanied by eight doctors, had been relocated to Gironde to escape the Marseille microcosm where the frontal methods of the controversial director of the IHU, former dean of the faculty of medicine and president of the university, generate both unwavering support and stubborn enmities.

Explanations: Article reserved for our subscribers Didier Raoult pushed towards the exit by the partners of the Marseille university hospital institute

At the end of 2020, across the country, many practitioners complained to their authorities of being harassed by patients claiming, sometimes brutally, to be treated with hydroxychloroquine, the molecule praised by Professor Raoult and his teams. . Reports which pushed the departmental order of Bouches-du-Rhône, then the national order, to take up the case. Didier Raoult was thus accused of having violated several articles of the code of ethics and was answerable for acts of “Charlatanisme” for having prescribed his protocol “Without established scientific data”, and of “Breaches of its duties of brotherhood”.

“Trial of success”

At the hearing, his lawyer, the very media-oriented Fabrice Di Vizio, denounced a lawsuit filed because of the criticisms formulated by the microbiologist on the management of the Covid-19 crisis by the health authorities. Didier Raoult saw it as the “trial of success”, still believing, despite the lack of scientific evidence, that his protocol is effective against the coronavirus. Before the ordinal chamber, the public rapporteur recalled that several international randomized studies had concluded the opposite. ” It’s the doctors who complain about us, not the patients “, Assured, in response the boss of the IHU, affirming to have received” 600,000 people ?Within its Marseille structure since the start of the pandemic. Philippe Carlini, lawyer of the order of doctors of Bouches-du-Rhône, considered him, on the contrary, that the proceedings had been initiated to support “Heroic liberal doctors”.

You have 49.03% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We want to say thanks to the writer of this short article for this outstanding content

Prosecuted for “charlatanism”, Professor Didier Raoult receives a symbolic sanction

[date_timestamp] => 1638555752 ) [6] => Array ( [title] => In Benin, the army suffers the first terrorist attacks in its history [link] => https://bofads.com/world-news/in-benin-the-army-suffers-the-first-terrorist-attacks-in-its-history/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Paula Hooper ) [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 18:14:50 +0000 [category] => World NewsarmyattacksBeninhistorysuffersterrorist [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7520 [description] => To not miss anything on African news, subscribe to the newsletter of World Africa from this link. Every Saturday at 6 a.m., find a week of current events and debates treated by the editorial staff of World Africa. GOOGLE MAPS The signals had been red for months. Thursday, December 2, the terrorist threat looming over ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

To not miss anything on African news, subscribe to the newsletter of World Africa from this link. Every Saturday at 6 a.m., find a week of current events and debates treated by the editorial staff of World Africa.

The signals had been red for months. Thursday, December 2, the terrorist threat looming over northern Benin materialized. During the night, two soldiers of the Beninese Armed Forces (FAB) were killed in the town of Porga, near the border with Burkina Faso. “A jihadist was shot dead by our forces”, said Colonel Fructueux Gbaguidi, Chief of Staff of the Army, in a message to Benin officers posted on social networks.

The day before, in the locality of Mékrou Yinyin, further east in the north of the country, soldiers “In a position of surveillance of the border zone” had already been targeted, according to a statement from the staff. From “Unidentified individuals” fired after trying “To bypass the prevention system in place”. An assailant was killed. “This new trial of fire reminds us in blood and pain that the danger is real on the ground”, lamented Colonel Fructueux Gbaguidi.

Read also Coastal West African countries under jihadist threat

The December 2 attack in Porga was attributed by several security sources to one of the small groups affiliated with the Support Group for Islam and Muslims (GSIM). “It could have been committed by men from the katiba Macina, a jihadist fighting unit based in Kompienga, a town in south-eastern Burkina Faso located near the Togolese and Beninese borders,” says Kars de Bruijne, conflict researcher at the Institute for International Relations in Clingendael, the Netherlands, and author of a report in June on the security situation in northern Benin. Operations led by Burkinabé forces took place in this region about three weeks ago and may have forced the jihadists to retreat to Benin. “

Incursions of armed men

The two attacks are the very first assaults launched by the jihadists against the Beninese army, according to the authorities. But the threat is not new. Since 2019, northern Benin, bordered by dense forest areas that are difficult to access, has seen an increase in incursions by armed men, a direct consequence of the expansion of terrorist groups in neighboring states: in eastern Burkina Faso. Faso and southern Niger.

1is May 2019, the kidnapping of two French tourists and the assassination of their Beninese guide, during a safari in the Pendjari park, one of the last sanctuaries of wildlife in West Africa, had come signal to the Beninese authorities that, from now on, the security threat of the Sahel was indeed at their doorstep. The two teachers were released by French special forces nine days later, at the cost of the lives of two petty officers.

Read also Benin faced with security challenge after attack on Pendjari park

Since then, jihadists have proliferated in the forests of northern Benin, taking advantage of the situation of the Pendjari park, near the Burkinabe border to the north-west, and of the W park to the north-east, on the Niger side. They established rear bases there for the necessary logistical supplies to support their war effort in the Sahel.

To ward off possible assaults, the Beninese authorities have strengthened their security and intelligence capacities. At the end of March, a suspected terrorist of Burkinabé nationality was arrested in Pendjari by rangers from African Parks, the organization responsible for monitoring this protected area. The patrol had identified three armed men on motorcycles and one of them opened fire. According to a security source, the fighters belonged to the GSIM.

Large joint operation

Between the end of October and the end of November, a dozen men, accused of being in contact with Islamist terrorists, were arrested in the department of Atacora, bordering Togo and Burkina Faso, and transferred to Cotonou, the economic capital of Benin to be heard by the Court for the Repression of Economic Crimes and Terrorism (CRIET). On October 31, residents of the village of Kourou, located in the same province, saw a group of men pass by in a pickup and on motorbikes carrying heavy weapons and waving a black flag. The security forces then increased their numbers.

Understand : Did the French freed in Burkina Faso take reckless risks?

The attacks could also be a consequence of the large joint operation between the armies of Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Togo, which took place between 21 and 27 November. According to the Burkinabé Minister of Security, Maxime Koné, it would have caused the death of dozens of terrorists and the arrest of « 300 suspects ».

1is February, Bernard Emié, the head of French foreign intelligence, was worried about the plans extension to the Gulf of Guinea of ??GSIM, a group whose combatants have been operating in Mali since the start of the war in 2012, as well as in Burkina Faso and Niger. “To loosen the grip in which they are caught, and to spread southwards, the terrorists are already financing men who are spreading in Côte d’Ivoire and Benin”, underlined at the time the head of the DGSE.

We would like to say thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable material

In Benin, the army suffers the first terrorist attacks in its history

) [summary] => To not miss anything on African news, subscribe to the newsletter of World Africa from this link. Every Saturday at 6 a.m., find a week of current events and debates treated by the editorial staff of World Africa. GOOGLE MAPS The signals had been red for months. Thursday, December 2, the terrorist threat looming over ... Read more [atom_content] =>

To not miss anything on African news, subscribe to the newsletter of World Africa from this link. Every Saturday at 6 a.m., find a week of current events and debates treated by the editorial staff of World Africa.

The signals had been red for months. Thursday, December 2, the terrorist threat looming over northern Benin materialized. During the night, two soldiers of the Beninese Armed Forces (FAB) were killed in the town of Porga, near the border with Burkina Faso. “A jihadist was shot dead by our forces”, said Colonel Fructueux Gbaguidi, Chief of Staff of the Army, in a message to Benin officers posted on social networks.

The day before, in the locality of Mékrou Yinyin, further east in the north of the country, soldiers “In a position of surveillance of the border zone” had already been targeted, according to a statement from the staff. From “Unidentified individuals” fired after trying “To bypass the prevention system in place”. An assailant was killed. “This new trial of fire reminds us in blood and pain that the danger is real on the ground”, lamented Colonel Fructueux Gbaguidi.

Read also Coastal West African countries under jihadist threat

The December 2 attack in Porga was attributed by several security sources to one of the small groups affiliated with the Support Group for Islam and Muslims (GSIM). “It could have been committed by men from the katiba Macina, a jihadist fighting unit based in Kompienga, a town in south-eastern Burkina Faso located near the Togolese and Beninese borders,” says Kars de Bruijne, conflict researcher at the Institute for International Relations in Clingendael, the Netherlands, and author of a report in June on the security situation in northern Benin. Operations led by Burkinabé forces took place in this region about three weeks ago and may have forced the jihadists to retreat to Benin. “

Incursions of armed men

The two attacks are the very first assaults launched by the jihadists against the Beninese army, according to the authorities. But the threat is not new. Since 2019, northern Benin, bordered by dense forest areas that are difficult to access, has seen an increase in incursions by armed men, a direct consequence of the expansion of terrorist groups in neighboring states: in eastern Burkina Faso. Faso and southern Niger.

1is May 2019, the kidnapping of two French tourists and the assassination of their Beninese guide, during a safari in the Pendjari park, one of the last sanctuaries of wildlife in West Africa, had come signal to the Beninese authorities that, from now on, the security threat of the Sahel was indeed at their doorstep. The two teachers were released by French special forces nine days later, at the cost of the lives of two petty officers.

Read also Benin faced with security challenge after attack on Pendjari park

Since then, jihadists have proliferated in the forests of northern Benin, taking advantage of the situation of the Pendjari park, near the Burkinabe border to the north-west, and of the W park to the north-east, on the Niger side. They established rear bases there for the necessary logistical supplies to support their war effort in the Sahel.

To ward off possible assaults, the Beninese authorities have strengthened their security and intelligence capacities. At the end of March, a suspected terrorist of Burkinabé nationality was arrested in Pendjari by rangers from African Parks, the organization responsible for monitoring this protected area. The patrol had identified three armed men on motorcycles and one of them opened fire. According to a security source, the fighters belonged to the GSIM.

Large joint operation

Between the end of October and the end of November, a dozen men, accused of being in contact with Islamist terrorists, were arrested in the department of Atacora, bordering Togo and Burkina Faso, and transferred to Cotonou, the economic capital of Benin to be heard by the Court for the Repression of Economic Crimes and Terrorism (CRIET). On October 31, residents of the village of Kourou, located in the same province, saw a group of men pass by in a pickup and on motorbikes carrying heavy weapons and waving a black flag. The security forces then increased their numbers.

Understand : Did the French freed in Burkina Faso take reckless risks?

The attacks could also be a consequence of the large joint operation between the armies of Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Togo, which took place between 21 and 27 November. According to the Burkinabé Minister of Security, Maxime Koné, it would have caused the death of dozens of terrorists and the arrest of « 300 suspects ».

1is February, Bernard Emié, the head of French foreign intelligence, was worried about the plans extension to the Gulf of Guinea of ??GSIM, a group whose combatants have been operating in Mali since the start of the war in 2012, as well as in Burkina Faso and Niger. “To loosen the grip in which they are caught, and to spread southwards, the terrorists are already financing men who are spreading in Côte d’Ivoire and Benin”, underlined at the time the head of the DGSE.

We would like to say thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable material

In Benin, the army suffers the first terrorist attacks in its history

[date_timestamp] => 1638555290 ) [7] => Array ( [title] => The verdict fell on the dramatic Devillage campsite in 2014 in Brazil: the Belgian Union and Sun Reizen held responsible [link] => https://bofads.com/sport/the-verdict-fell-on-the-dramatic-devillage-campsite-in-2014-in-brazil-the-belgian-union-and-sun-reizen-held-responsible/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tim Hall ) [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 18:02:41 +0000 [category] => SportBelgianBrazilcampsiteDevillagedramaticfellheldReizenresponsibleSunUnionVerdict [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7517 [description] => While the campsite did not meet their expectations, the supporters are demanding compensation. The RBFA and Sun Reizen had already been acquitted before the Brussels Court of Appeal. On the occasion of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, the first tournament in which the Red Devils had taken part in a long time, the RBFA ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

While the campsite did not meet their expectations, the supporters are demanding compensation. The RBFA and Sun Reizen had already been acquitted before the Brussels Court of Appeal. On the occasion of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, the first tournament in which the Red Devils had taken part in a long time, the RBFA organized a supporters’ camp, called Devillage. To do this, the two partners had teamed up with the Dutch company Onranjencamping, used to setting up trips for fans of the Dutch national team. The local operator was Camping Clube Do Brazil.

The Belgian Union had sold this fan campsite in Brazil as luxury accommodation, with high quality food, electricity and wifi. Hundreds of enthusiastic supporters had then spent up to 5,000 euros per person for a nine-night all-inclusive stay, flight included.

On their arrival, the reality was unfortunately much less rosy and several complaints were quickly made: the sanitary facilities were unsanitary and dirty, the wi-fi connection was not always available and the electricity deficient.

Test-Achats then initiated civil proceedings on behalf of the 206 supporters, but this was delayed by another criminal complaint that a few supporters had filed. The consumer organization is a civil party on behalf of 206 supporters. At first instance, the Belgian Union and Sun Reizen were sentenced by the criminal court to a fine. However, the latter two were acquitted on appeal and Test-Achats continued the case in civil matters.

“The court considers that the RBFA and Sun Reizen are responsible for the organization of the trip and that they must each vouch for all the losses suffered by the travelers”, reacted the judge of the Dutch-speaking court of first instance of Brussels Els De Breucker. “The court, however, did not fully respond to the supporters’ claims. A full refund of the travel sum with additional compensation, as initially requested by the supporters, is not considered justified. There were no complaints. about flights and transfers “.

“We are pleased to note that the court followed our vision and that each victim now receives compensation amounting to 65% of the accommodation costs, and this due to the poor execution of the travel contract”, reacted Test -Purchases. “Since RBFA and Sun Reizen only wanted to compensate 30% of the stay, this is a result we can be happy with.”

The indemnities granted vary from a few hundred euros to amounts of more than 1,700 euros, plus interest. The court also ruled that Union and Sun Reizen were each 50% liable. The court’s decision can still be appealed.

We want to say thanks to the author of this short article for this incredible content

The verdict fell on the dramatic Devillage campsite in 2014 in Brazil: the Belgian Union and Sun Reizen held responsible

) [summary] => While the campsite did not meet their expectations, the supporters are demanding compensation. The RBFA and Sun Reizen had already been acquitted before the Brussels Court of Appeal. On the occasion of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, the first tournament in which the Red Devils had taken part in a long time, the RBFA ... Read more [atom_content] =>

While the campsite did not meet their expectations, the supporters are demanding compensation. The RBFA and Sun Reizen had already been acquitted before the Brussels Court of Appeal. On the occasion of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, the first tournament in which the Red Devils had taken part in a long time, the RBFA organized a supporters’ camp, called Devillage. To do this, the two partners had teamed up with the Dutch company Onranjencamping, used to setting up trips for fans of the Dutch national team. The local operator was Camping Clube Do Brazil.

The Belgian Union had sold this fan campsite in Brazil as luxury accommodation, with high quality food, electricity and wifi. Hundreds of enthusiastic supporters had then spent up to 5,000 euros per person for a nine-night all-inclusive stay, flight included.

On their arrival, the reality was unfortunately much less rosy and several complaints were quickly made: the sanitary facilities were unsanitary and dirty, the wi-fi connection was not always available and the electricity deficient.

Test-Achats then initiated civil proceedings on behalf of the 206 supporters, but this was delayed by another criminal complaint that a few supporters had filed. The consumer organization is a civil party on behalf of 206 supporters. At first instance, the Belgian Union and Sun Reizen were sentenced by the criminal court to a fine. However, the latter two were acquitted on appeal and Test-Achats continued the case in civil matters.

“The court considers that the RBFA and Sun Reizen are responsible for the organization of the trip and that they must each vouch for all the losses suffered by the travelers”, reacted the judge of the Dutch-speaking court of first instance of Brussels Els De Breucker. “The court, however, did not fully respond to the supporters’ claims. A full refund of the travel sum with additional compensation, as initially requested by the supporters, is not considered justified. There were no complaints. about flights and transfers “.

“We are pleased to note that the court followed our vision and that each victim now receives compensation amounting to 65% of the accommodation costs, and this due to the poor execution of the travel contract”, reacted Test -Purchases. “Since RBFA and Sun Reizen only wanted to compensate 30% of the stay, this is a result we can be happy with.”

The indemnities granted vary from a few hundred euros to amounts of more than 1,700 euros, plus interest. The court also ruled that Union and Sun Reizen were each 50% liable. The court’s decision can still be appealed.

We want to say thanks to the author of this short article for this incredible content

The verdict fell on the dramatic Devillage campsite in 2014 in Brazil: the Belgian Union and Sun Reizen held responsible

[date_timestamp] => 1638554561 ) [8] => Array ( [title] => Lamine Diack, controversial former president of world athletics, dies [link] => https://bofads.com/world-news/lamine-diack-controversial-former-president-of-world-athletics-dies/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Paula Hooper ) [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 17:33:00 +0000 [category] => World NewsathleticscontroversialDiackdiesLaminepresident [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7514 [description] => Lamine Diack, at a joint IOC-IAAF press conference in Beijing, at the site of the World Championships in Athletics, August 21, 2015. KIN CHEUNG / AP Former president of the International Athletics Federation (IAAF) from 1999 to 2015, Lamine Diack died, Friday, December 3, in Dakar (Senegal), at the age of 88. Senegalese President Macky ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Former president of the International Athletics Federation (IAAF) from 1999 to 2015, Lamine Diack died, Friday, December 3, in Dakar (Senegal), at the age of 88. Senegalese President Macky Sall greeted on Twitter “A man of great dimensions”, and regretted that the country thus lost the“One of his most illustrious sons”.

Public tributes were however limited to Dakar. The silence from the rest of the world and the lack of compliments when it comes to saluting Lamine Diack’s long career can be easily explained. For six years, the course of the former sports leader had been marred by corruption cases, which had already earned him a sentence of four years in prison, including two closed, on September 16, 2020, in Paris. A decision he had appealed. He was, moreover, indicted in another case, the French justice suspecting him of having distorted the attribution of the Olympic Games of Rio (2016) and Tokyo in exchange for money, and had not obtained the right to leave France, in the spring of 2021, only against the payment of a deposit.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Corruption within the international athletics federation: the six defendants, including his ex-boss Lamine Diack, condemned

Born June 7, 1933 in Dakar, the third child of a large family, Lamine Diack first experienced a first life as an accomplished athlete. French long jump champion in 1958 – the year of Senegal’s independence – he was also passionate about football. ?I was born 150 meters from the stadium and the prison. I chose the stadium! “, he liked to summarize. He then juggles between the responsibilities of sports leader and politician, quickly climbing the ranks and multiplying positions.

Father of fifteen children

Mayor of Dakar (1978-1980), he became vice-president of the Senegalese National Assembly (1988-1993), among other prestigious positions. On the sport side, he joined the National Olympic Committee of Senegal in the 1970s, before taking the presidency in 1985. At the same time, he reached the upper echelons of the IAAF. Vice-president of the institution, he took the lead on the death of Primo Nebiolo in November 1999, first by interim then at the discretion of elections with comfortable scores. On the family side, finally, he will have fifteen children with his first two wives.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Four years in prison and 500,000 euros fine required against Lamine Diack, former boss of world athletics

Patron of the first Olympic sport, the Senegalese is fortunate that his reign coincides with that of Jamaican star Usain Bolt. He prides himself on having brought ?his? Federation out of great financial difficulties. But at what cost ? In the fall of 2015, everything ended in blood sausage, and a long legal drama began. Arrested at Roissy on November 3, 2015, Lamine Diack is suspected of having hushed up doping cases in Russian athletics in exchange for bribes. It is forbidden to leave French territory. Judged in 2020 for ?aggravated money laundering? and ?breach of trust?, he partially acknowledges the facts: “Who made the decision that it was necessary to display [les sanctions] ? It’s me. There is no problem. “

You have 34.87% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We want to say thanks to the writer of this write-up for this remarkable material

Lamine Diack, controversial former president of world athletics, dies

) [summary] => Lamine Diack, at a joint IOC-IAAF press conference in Beijing, at the site of the World Championships in Athletics, August 21, 2015. KIN CHEUNG / AP Former president of the International Athletics Federation (IAAF) from 1999 to 2015, Lamine Diack died, Friday, December 3, in Dakar (Senegal), at the age of 88. Senegalese President Macky ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Former president of the International Athletics Federation (IAAF) from 1999 to 2015, Lamine Diack died, Friday, December 3, in Dakar (Senegal), at the age of 88. Senegalese President Macky Sall greeted on Twitter “A man of great dimensions”, and regretted that the country thus lost the“One of his most illustrious sons”.

Public tributes were however limited to Dakar. The silence from the rest of the world and the lack of compliments when it comes to saluting Lamine Diack’s long career can be easily explained. For six years, the course of the former sports leader had been marred by corruption cases, which had already earned him a sentence of four years in prison, including two closed, on September 16, 2020, in Paris. A decision he had appealed. He was, moreover, indicted in another case, the French justice suspecting him of having distorted the attribution of the Olympic Games of Rio (2016) and Tokyo in exchange for money, and had not obtained the right to leave France, in the spring of 2021, only against the payment of a deposit.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Corruption within the international athletics federation: the six defendants, including his ex-boss Lamine Diack, condemned

Born June 7, 1933 in Dakar, the third child of a large family, Lamine Diack first experienced a first life as an accomplished athlete. French long jump champion in 1958 – the year of Senegal’s independence – he was also passionate about football. ?I was born 150 meters from the stadium and the prison. I chose the stadium! “, he liked to summarize. He then juggles between the responsibilities of sports leader and politician, quickly climbing the ranks and multiplying positions.

Father of fifteen children

Mayor of Dakar (1978-1980), he became vice-president of the Senegalese National Assembly (1988-1993), among other prestigious positions. On the sport side, he joined the National Olympic Committee of Senegal in the 1970s, before taking the presidency in 1985. At the same time, he reached the upper echelons of the IAAF. Vice-president of the institution, he took the lead on the death of Primo Nebiolo in November 1999, first by interim then at the discretion of elections with comfortable scores. On the family side, finally, he will have fifteen children with his first two wives.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Four years in prison and 500,000 euros fine required against Lamine Diack, former boss of world athletics

Patron of the first Olympic sport, the Senegalese is fortunate that his reign coincides with that of Jamaican star Usain Bolt. He prides himself on having brought ?his? Federation out of great financial difficulties. But at what cost ? In the fall of 2015, everything ended in blood sausage, and a long legal drama began. Arrested at Roissy on November 3, 2015, Lamine Diack is suspected of having hushed up doping cases in Russian athletics in exchange for bribes. It is forbidden to leave French territory. Judged in 2020 for ?aggravated money laundering? and ?breach of trust?, he partially acknowledges the facts: “Who made the decision that it was necessary to display [les sanctions] ? It’s me. There is no problem. “

You have 34.87% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We want to say thanks to the writer of this write-up for this remarkable material

Lamine Diack, controversial former president of world athletics, dies

[date_timestamp] => 1638552780 ) [9] => Array ( [title] => Exploring carbon storage deep beneath the seabed [link] => https://bofads.com/healthandscience/exploring-carbon-storage-deep-beneath-the-seabed/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Fri, 03 Dec 2021 17:08:13 +0000 [category] => Health And SciencebeneathcarbondeepExploringseabedstorage [guid] => https://bofads.com/?p=7512 [description] => Journal Reference: Annalisa Polidori, Ruth F. Rowlands, Anita Zeidler, Mathieu Salanne, Henry E. Fischer, Burkhard Annighöfer, Stefan Klotz, Philip S. Salmon. Structure and dynamics of aqueous NaCl solutions at high temperatures and pressures. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 2021; 155 (19): 194506 DOI: 10.1063/5.0067166 Now a study from the University of Bath is shedding new ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Annalisa Polidori, Ruth F. Rowlands, Anita Zeidler, Mathieu Salanne, Henry E. Fischer, Burkhard Annighöfer, Stefan Klotz, Philip S. Salmon. Structure and dynamics of aqueous NaCl solutions at high temperatures and pressures. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 2021; 155 (19): 194506 DOI: 10.1063/5.0067166

Now a study from the University of Bath is shedding new light on the way saline solutions act in deep geological formations (known as aquifers), paving the way for further research into CO? sequestration beneath the seabed. The final aim of this work is for pipes to carry CO? from the earth?s atmosphere into these aquifers, where it will be stored harmlessly, potentially forever.

Working out how CO?-laden salty water behaves under extreme conditions in the presence of rock is important. Will it dissolve in the water and react with the rock, or will it simply bubble back to the surface at the first opportunity, like the bubbles from a bottle of cola after it has been shaken and opened?

In an ideal world, the combination of seawater and CO? under pressure will result in the formation of rock, though it is more likely that the blend will retain its liquid form. ?Providing the rock above the solution is fault-free and impermeable, the CO? will stay there,? said co-author Professor Philip Salmon, from the Department of Physics.

For the study, published in the Journal of Chemical Physics, the researchers observed saline solutions under conditions of pressure and temperatures that mimic the conditions found in deep aquifers. Their ?neutron diffraction? technique allowed them to examine saline solutions in more extreme conditions than ever before. Using this technique, they studied different isotopes (or versions) of sodium chloride, allowing new insight into the way salty water behaves under different sets of pressure and temperature conditions.

The chemistry of salty solutions mixed with CO?

Little is known about the chemistry of mixing saline solution and CO? at high pressures and temperatures. Previous experimental efforts to find answers have failed because the solution, under extreme conditions, is highly corrosive and destroys the lab equipment it?s contained within before results are yielded.

?Being able to hold these solutions without the apparatus falling to pieces was a big challenge,? said co-author Dr Anita Zeidler, also from the Department of Physics. ?We overcame them through the design of high-pressure apparatus and a judicious choice of containment materials.?

Describing the research, Professor Salmon said: ?Our experiments show that by using neutron diffraction, you can see how the salt ions and water molecules interact under quite extreme conditions of heat and pressure. Next, we?ll be attempting to dissolve carbon dioxide into the saline solutions. The results from these experiments will inform models on carbon sequestration mechanisms, with the end-goal being to find a way to safely sequester carbon dioxide in deep-sea aquifers.?

The sequestration of CO? in deep aquifers is one of the global strategies being explored for carbon capture and storage. Pilot plants have demonstrated the success of this strategy, but ramping-up the scale depends on solving some key issues, such as storage capacity. It?s therefore important for scientists to improve their knowledge of the physics and chemistry of CO? in the environment into which it is injected.

The researchers hope to find collaborators with an expertise in corrosion and corrosion resistance before they start the next phase of their project. ?We want to study saline solutions under even more extreme conditions that fully fit in with real-life conditions, and these conditions will be even more corrosive. So, we could really benefit from the input of a corrosion specialist,? said Dr Zeidler.

This work was led from Bath and benefitted from the significant contributions of two PhD students, Annalisa Polidori and Ruth Rowlands. Also collaborating were researchers from three institutions in France: Sorbonne Université, Université Paris-Saclay and Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble.

We want to thank the writer of this article for this incredible web content

Exploring carbon storage deep beneath the seabed

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Annalisa Polidori, Ruth F. Rowlands, Anita Zeidler, Mathieu Salanne, Henry E. Fischer, Burkhard Annighöfer, Stefan Klotz, Philip S. Salmon. Structure and dynamics of aqueous NaCl solutions at high temperatures and pressures. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 2021; 155 (19): 194506 DOI: 10.1063/5.0067166 Now a study from the University of Bath is shedding new ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Annalisa Polidori, Ruth F. Rowlands, Anita Zeidler, Mathieu Salanne, Henry E. Fischer, Burkhard Annighöfer, Stefan Klotz, Philip S. Salmon. Structure and dynamics of aqueous NaCl solutions at high temperatures and pressures. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 2021; 155 (19): 194506 DOI: 10.1063/5.0067166

Now a study from the University of Bath is shedding new light on the way saline solutions act in deep geological formations (known as aquifers), paving the way for further research into CO? sequestration beneath the seabed. The final aim of this work is for pipes to carry CO? from the earth?s atmosphere into these aquifers, where it will be stored harmlessly, potentially forever.

Working out how CO?-laden salty water behaves under extreme conditions in the presence of rock is important. Will it dissolve in the water and react with the rock, or will it simply bubble back to the surface at the first opportunity, like the bubbles from a bottle of cola after it has been shaken and opened?

In an ideal world, the combination of seawater and CO? under pressure will result in the formation of rock, though it is more likely that the blend will retain its liquid form. ?Providing the rock above the solution is fault-free and impermeable, the CO? will stay there,? said co-author Professor Philip Salmon, from the Department of Physics.

For the study, published in the Journal of Chemical Physics, the researchers observed saline solutions under conditions of pressure and temperatures that mimic the conditions found in deep aquifers. Their ?neutron diffraction? technique allowed them to examine saline solutions in more extreme conditions than ever before. Using this technique, they studied different isotopes (or versions) of sodium chloride, allowing new insight into the way salty water behaves under different sets of pressure and temperature conditions.

The chemistry of salty solutions mixed with CO?

Little is known about the chemistry of mixing saline solution and CO? at high pressures and temperatures. Previous experimental efforts to find answers have failed because the solution, under extreme conditions, is highly corrosive and destroys the lab equipment it?s contained within before results are yielded.

?Being able to hold these solutions without the apparatus falling to pieces was a big challenge,? said co-author Dr Anita Zeidler, also from the Department of Physics. ?We overcame them through the design of high-pressure apparatus and a judicious choice of containment materials.?

Describing the research, Professor Salmon said: ?Our experiments show that by using neutron diffraction, you can see how the salt ions and water molecules interact under quite extreme conditions of heat and pressure. Next, we?ll be attempting to dissolve carbon dioxide into the saline solutions. The results from these experiments will inform models on carbon sequestration mechanisms, with the end-goal being to find a way to safely sequester carbon dioxide in deep-sea aquifers.?

The sequestration of CO? in deep aquifers is one of the global strategies being explored for carbon capture and storage. Pilot plants have demonstrated the success of this strategy, but ramping-up the scale depends on solving some key issues, such as storage capacity. It?s therefore important for scientists to improve their knowledge of the physics and chemistry of CO? in the environment into which it is injected.

The researchers hope to find collaborators with an expertise in corrosion and corrosion resistance before they start the next phase of their project. ?We want to study saline solutions under even more extreme conditions that fully fit in with real-life conditions, and these conditions will be even more corrosive. So, we could really benefit from the input of a corrosion specialist,? said Dr Zeidler.

This work was led from Bath and benefitted from the significant contributions of two PhD students, Annalisa Polidori and Ruth Rowlands. Also collaborating were researchers from three institutions in France: Sorbonne Université, Université Paris-Saclay and Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble.

We want to thank the writer of this article for this incredible web content

Exploring carbon storage deep beneath the seabed

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