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Higher COVID-19 death rates in the southern U.S. due to behavior variations, study finds
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                    [title] => Higher COVID-19 death rates in the southern U.S. due to behavior variations, study finds
                    [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/healthandscience/higher-covid-19-death-rates-in-the-southern-u-s-due-to-behavior-variations-study-finds/
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                            [creator] => Tony Grantly
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                    [pubdate] => Fri, 29 Apr 2022 04:35:09 +0000
                    [category] => Health And SciencebehaviorCOVID19deathratessouthernstudyvariations
                    [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42169
                    [description] => Journal Reference: Michael A. Stoto, Samantha Schlageter, John D. Kraemer. COVID-19 mortality in the United States: It?s been two Americas from the start. PLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (4): e0265053 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0265053 The study, by Georgetown University?s School of Nursing & Health Studies researchers, appeared April 28, 2022, in PLOS ONE. Excess mortality, which helps account ... Read more
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Journal Reference:

  1. Michael A. Stoto, Samantha Schlageter, John D. Kraemer. COVID-19 mortality in the United States: It?s been two Americas from the start. PLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (4): e0265053 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0265053

The study, by Georgetown University?s School of Nursing & Health Studies researchers, appeared April 28, 2022, in PLOS ONE.

Excess mortality, which helps account for avoidable deaths from a new disease or situation, is defined by the difference between total current deaths and deaths expected based on earlier time period, usually the previous decade or so. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calculates these numbers weekly. For this study, the CDC excess mortality data were analyzed for the period between January 3, 2020, to September 26, 2021. For regional comparison purposes, areas of the country were broken down into the Northeast, Midwest, South and West.

?Our goal was to carefully examine regional differences in COVID-19 death rates based on reliable statistical data,? says Michael Stoto, Ph.D., professor of Health Systems Administration and Population Health at the School of Nursing & Health Studies and corresponding author of the study. ?Our study is the first to quantify avoidable deaths and confirm that both COVID-19 deaths and avoidable deaths disproportionately occurred in the South.?

The investigators found that regional differences in COVID-19 mortality rates have persisted throughout the pandemic. The southern part of the United States has had higher mortality rates than the rest of the U.S. since the start of summer in 2020. Since October 2020, 48% of COVID-19 deaths were in the South, which makes up 38% of the population, pointing to disproportionate outcomes regionally.

The researchers also determined that between January 2020 and September 2021 there were 895,693 excess deaths associated with COVID-19, which is 26% more than reported by other experts who track disease. Although the official total neared on one million deaths in the U.S due to COVID-19 by late April 2022, based on this undercount the scientists believe that threshold was actually passed at the beginning of 2022.

These estimates of undercounts are important because most studies have looked at excess mortality at the state and county level in the U.S., but because of small population sizes, the studies have not examined patterns over time. Some earlier studies explored the relationship between COVID-19 mortality and age, education, and other factors as well as vaccine uptake, party affiliation, and other factors. But most studies have used reported COVID-19 deaths rather than excess deaths, as compared to what Dr. Stoto and collaborators have done, and may not be as statistically reliable.

?This is one of a series of planned studies to look carefully at the response to COVID-19 in the U.S. and other countries and to learn from the experience in order to strengthen preparedness for future potential outbreaks,? says Stoto. ?Our team has also looked at testing and surveillance, and other COVID-19 metrics to understand how communities have come together to effectively deal with the pandemic.?

In addition to Stoto, the other authors from Georgetown include Samantha Schlageter, who conducted this work as an undergraduate in the Health Care Management & Policy program at the School of Nursing & Health Studies (NHS), and John D. Kraemer, an associate professor in Department of Health Systems Administration at NHS.

We would love to say thanks to the writer of this article for this incredible web content

Higher COVID-19 death rates in the southern U.S. due to behavior variations, study finds

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Michael A. Stoto, Samantha Schlageter, John D. Kraemer. COVID-19 mortality in the United States: It?s been two Americas from the start. PLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (4): e0265053 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0265053 The study, by Georgetown University?s School of Nursing & Health Studies researchers, appeared April 28, 2022, in PLOS ONE. Excess mortality, which helps account ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Michael A. Stoto, Samantha Schlageter, John D. Kraemer. COVID-19 mortality in the United States: It?s been two Americas from the start. PLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (4): e0265053 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0265053

The study, by Georgetown University?s School of Nursing & Health Studies researchers, appeared April 28, 2022, in PLOS ONE.

Excess mortality, which helps account for avoidable deaths from a new disease or situation, is defined by the difference between total current deaths and deaths expected based on earlier time period, usually the previous decade or so. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calculates these numbers weekly. For this study, the CDC excess mortality data were analyzed for the period between January 3, 2020, to September 26, 2021. For regional comparison purposes, areas of the country were broken down into the Northeast, Midwest, South and West.

?Our goal was to carefully examine regional differences in COVID-19 death rates based on reliable statistical data,? says Michael Stoto, Ph.D., professor of Health Systems Administration and Population Health at the School of Nursing & Health Studies and corresponding author of the study. ?Our study is the first to quantify avoidable deaths and confirm that both COVID-19 deaths and avoidable deaths disproportionately occurred in the South.?

The investigators found that regional differences in COVID-19 mortality rates have persisted throughout the pandemic. The southern part of the United States has had higher mortality rates than the rest of the U.S. since the start of summer in 2020. Since October 2020, 48% of COVID-19 deaths were in the South, which makes up 38% of the population, pointing to disproportionate outcomes regionally.

The researchers also determined that between January 2020 and September 2021 there were 895,693 excess deaths associated with COVID-19, which is 26% more than reported by other experts who track disease. Although the official total neared on one million deaths in the U.S due to COVID-19 by late April 2022, based on this undercount the scientists believe that threshold was actually passed at the beginning of 2022.

These estimates of undercounts are important because most studies have looked at excess mortality at the state and county level in the U.S., but because of small population sizes, the studies have not examined patterns over time. Some earlier studies explored the relationship between COVID-19 mortality and age, education, and other factors as well as vaccine uptake, party affiliation, and other factors. But most studies have used reported COVID-19 deaths rather than excess deaths, as compared to what Dr. Stoto and collaborators have done, and may not be as statistically reliable.

?This is one of a series of planned studies to look carefully at the response to COVID-19 in the U.S. and other countries and to learn from the experience in order to strengthen preparedness for future potential outbreaks,? says Stoto. ?Our team has also looked at testing and surveillance, and other COVID-19 metrics to understand how communities have come together to effectively deal with the pandemic.?

In addition to Stoto, the other authors from Georgetown include Samantha Schlageter, who conducted this work as an undergraduate in the Health Care Management & Policy program at the School of Nursing & Health Studies (NHS), and John D. Kraemer, an associate professor in Department of Health Systems Administration at NHS.

We would love to say thanks to the writer of this article for this incredible web content

Higher COVID-19 death rates in the southern U.S. due to behavior variations, study finds

[date_timestamp] => 1651206909 ) [1] => Array ( [title] => Los actores de ?Grease? que han muerto pero que nadie olvidará jamás [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/movies/los-actores-de-grease-que-han-muerto-pero-que-nadie-olvidara-jamas/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Paula Hooper ) [pubdate] => Fri, 29 Apr 2022 04:16:14 +0000 [category] => MoviesactoresGreasehanjamáslosmuertoNadieolvidarápero [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42163 [description] => ¿Quién no tiene recuerdos memorables cuando escucha hablar de ?Grease?? Aunque han pasado más de 40 años desde su estreno, allá por 1978, la película sigue tan fresca como entonces y no deja de arrancar una que otra sonrisa a sus fans por más que ya la hayan visto muchas veces. Olivia Newton-John y John ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

¿Quién no tiene recuerdos memorables cuando escucha hablar de ?Grease?? Aunque han pasado más de 40 años desde su estreno, allá por 1978, la película sigue tan fresca como entonces y no deja de arrancar una que otra sonrisa a sus fans por más que ya la hayan visto muchas veces.

encarnaron a la pareja que cantaba y bailaba en el filme. Temas como ??, ? o ?? fueron tan pegajosos que hasta la actualidad seguimos escuchándolos porque nos hacen mover todo el cuerpo.

Debido al tiempo que ha pasado desde que Paramount Pictures lanzó ?Vaselina? o ?Brillantina?, como también se le conoce en otros países, cuatro décadas exactamente, hacemos un repaso por los miembros de su elenco que ya han fallecido, pero que dejaron huella en millones de corazones.

ANNETTE CHARLES – CHA CHA

Annette Charles interpretó en a Cha Cha, la rival en la pista de baile de Olivia Newton-John. Aunque durante el filme se la veía a menudo apoyándose en coches, aparentemente para mostrar una postura sexy, lo cierto es que intentaba sobrellevar los dolores que le producía un embarazo ectópico.

Abandonó la interpretación y murió el 3 de agosto de 2011 en Los Ángeles, víctima de un cáncer de pulmón, pese a que jamás probó un cigarrillo. Inicialmente había sido hospitalizada por neumonía.

JEFF CONAWAY – KENICKIE

Jeff Conaway interpretó a Kenickie, el mejor amigo de Danny en el instituto Rydell. Tras ?Grease? participó en las series de televisión ?Taxi? y ?Babylon 5?. Durante el rodaje conoció a la hermana de Olivia Newton-John, Rona Newton-John, con la que se casó en 1980, pero se divorció de ella cinco años después.

En 2008 participó en el reality show ?Celebrity Rehab with Dr. Drew?, en el que hizo pública su adicción al alcohol y la cocaína, dijo que consumía estupefacientes para buscar un refugio a los abusos sexuales que sufrió en su niñez. Murió en mayo de 2011 a los 60 años de una hemorragia cerebral provocada por una sobredosis de calmantes. Él también tenía neumonía y problemas respiratorios.

Jeff Conaway falleció el 27 de mayo del 2011 a los 60 años debido a una sobredosis. (Foto: Paramount Pictures)
Jeff Conaway falleció el 27 de mayo del 2011 a los 60 años debido a una sobredosis. (Foto: Paramount Pictures)

DENNIS CLEVELAND STEWART – CARA DE CRÁTER

Dennis Stewart, más conocido como Cara de cráter en ?Grease?, era el chico malo de la película, pues era el líder de la banda Los Escorpiones. Volvió a interpretar el papel de líder de los Motoristas en ?Grease 2? (1982). Apareció también como bailarín en ?The Beatles? Sgt Pepper?s Lonely Hearts Club Band?.

Le diagnosticaron VIH en 1993 y falleció a consecuencia de complicaciones relacionadas con la enfermedad al año siguientes a los 46 años. Fue incinerado y sus cenizas esparcidas sobre el mar.

JOAN BLONDELL – VI

Joan Blondell fue Vi en ?Grease?, la película que llegó al final de una carrera plagada de papeles de rubia sexy. Fue una actriz fundamental para la Warner Bros en la época anterior al Código Hays, e intervino en más de 100 filmes para el cine y la televisión.

Murió de leucemia el 25 de diciembre de 1979, a los 73 años en Santa Mónica, California. Un año después del estreno de la película que interpretaron Travolta y Newton-John. Ella fue enterrada en el cementerio Forest Lawn Memorial Park en Glendale.

hqdefault
Nominación al Óscar 1978 a la mejor canción por «Hopelessly Devoted to You» (compuesta por John Farrar). (Foto: Paramount Pictures)
Nominación al Óscar 1978 a la mejor canción por «Hopelessly Devoted to You» (compuesta por John Farrar). (Foto: Paramount Pictures)

TE PUEDE INTERESAR

We would love to say thanks to the author of this article for this awesome content

Los actores de ?Grease? que han muerto pero que nadie olvidará jamás

) [summary] => ¿Quién no tiene recuerdos memorables cuando escucha hablar de ?Grease?? Aunque han pasado más de 40 años desde su estreno, allá por 1978, la película sigue tan fresca como entonces y no deja de arrancar una que otra sonrisa a sus fans por más que ya la hayan visto muchas veces. Olivia Newton-John y John ... Read more [atom_content] =>

¿Quién no tiene recuerdos memorables cuando escucha hablar de ?Grease?? Aunque han pasado más de 40 años desde su estreno, allá por 1978, la película sigue tan fresca como entonces y no deja de arrancar una que otra sonrisa a sus fans por más que ya la hayan visto muchas veces.

encarnaron a la pareja que cantaba y bailaba en el filme. Temas como ??, ? o ?? fueron tan pegajosos que hasta la actualidad seguimos escuchándolos porque nos hacen mover todo el cuerpo.

Debido al tiempo que ha pasado desde que Paramount Pictures lanzó ?Vaselina? o ?Brillantina?, como también se le conoce en otros países, cuatro décadas exactamente, hacemos un repaso por los miembros de su elenco que ya han fallecido, pero que dejaron huella en millones de corazones.

ANNETTE CHARLES – CHA CHA

Annette Charles interpretó en a Cha Cha, la rival en la pista de baile de Olivia Newton-John. Aunque durante el filme se la veía a menudo apoyándose en coches, aparentemente para mostrar una postura sexy, lo cierto es que intentaba sobrellevar los dolores que le producía un embarazo ectópico.

Abandonó la interpretación y murió el 3 de agosto de 2011 en Los Ángeles, víctima de un cáncer de pulmón, pese a que jamás probó un cigarrillo. Inicialmente había sido hospitalizada por neumonía.

JEFF CONAWAY – KENICKIE

Jeff Conaway interpretó a Kenickie, el mejor amigo de Danny en el instituto Rydell. Tras ?Grease? participó en las series de televisión ?Taxi? y ?Babylon 5?. Durante el rodaje conoció a la hermana de Olivia Newton-John, Rona Newton-John, con la que se casó en 1980, pero se divorció de ella cinco años después.

En 2008 participó en el reality show ?Celebrity Rehab with Dr. Drew?, en el que hizo pública su adicción al alcohol y la cocaína, dijo que consumía estupefacientes para buscar un refugio a los abusos sexuales que sufrió en su niñez. Murió en mayo de 2011 a los 60 años de una hemorragia cerebral provocada por una sobredosis de calmantes. Él también tenía neumonía y problemas respiratorios.

Jeff Conaway falleció el 27 de mayo del 2011 a los 60 años debido a una sobredosis. (Foto: Paramount Pictures)
Jeff Conaway falleció el 27 de mayo del 2011 a los 60 años debido a una sobredosis. (Foto: Paramount Pictures)

DENNIS CLEVELAND STEWART – CARA DE CRÁTER

Dennis Stewart, más conocido como Cara de cráter en ?Grease?, era el chico malo de la película, pues era el líder de la banda Los Escorpiones. Volvió a interpretar el papel de líder de los Motoristas en ?Grease 2? (1982). Apareció también como bailarín en ?The Beatles? Sgt Pepper?s Lonely Hearts Club Band?.

Le diagnosticaron VIH en 1993 y falleció a consecuencia de complicaciones relacionadas con la enfermedad al año siguientes a los 46 años. Fue incinerado y sus cenizas esparcidas sobre el mar.

JOAN BLONDELL – VI

Joan Blondell fue Vi en ?Grease?, la película que llegó al final de una carrera plagada de papeles de rubia sexy. Fue una actriz fundamental para la Warner Bros en la época anterior al Código Hays, e intervino en más de 100 filmes para el cine y la televisión.

Murió de leucemia el 25 de diciembre de 1979, a los 73 años en Santa Mónica, California. Un año después del estreno de la película que interpretaron Travolta y Newton-John. Ella fue enterrada en el cementerio Forest Lawn Memorial Park en Glendale.

hqdefault
Nominación al Óscar 1978 a la mejor canción por «Hopelessly Devoted to You» (compuesta por John Farrar). (Foto: Paramount Pictures)
Nominación al Óscar 1978 a la mejor canción por «Hopelessly Devoted to You» (compuesta por John Farrar). (Foto: Paramount Pictures)

TE PUEDE INTERESAR

We would love to say thanks to the author of this article for this awesome content

Los actores de ?Grease? que han muerto pero que nadie olvidará jamás

[date_timestamp] => 1651205774 ) [2] => Array ( [title] => Cultura Inglesa Festival anuncia 25ª edição em formato híbrido, [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/music/cultura-inglesa-festival-anuncia-25a-edicao-em-formato-hibrido/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tom Pauler ) [pubdate] => Fri, 29 Apr 2022 04:03:27 +0000 [category] => Music25ªanunciaculturaediçãofestivalformatohíbridoInglesa [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42157 [description] => Curta Music Non Stop no Facebook Entre os dias 04 de maio e 04 de junho acontece o  Cultura Inglesa Festival (CIF) ?  edição comemorativa de 25 anos do maior festival da América Latina com foco na cultura britânica e na língua inglesa. Com uma programação versátil, multicultural e multilinguística, o CIF busca engajar a ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Entre os dias 04 de maio e 04 de junho acontece o  Cultura Inglesa Festival (CIF) ?  edição comemorativa de 25 anos do maior festival da América Latina com foco na cultura britânica e na língua inglesa. Com uma programação versátil, multicultural e multilinguística, o CIF busca engajar a sociedade no exercício de repensar o mundo por meio de uma experiência imersiva, sensorial e híbrida com eventos presenciais, híbridos (com público presente e transmissão na plataforma do festival) e conteúdo nacional e internacional exibido on demand. Nós do Music Non Stop acompanhamos coletiva de imprensa promovida pela organização do Festival e Liliane Rebelo, Head de Cultura e Sociedade da Cultura Inglesa explica a proposta inovadora para esta edição.

?O festival vai oferecer uma resposta sensível a este momento desafiador pela lente de  artistas, pensadores e educadores que estão refletindo sobre o presente e imaginando o futuro. O CIF propõe que façamos este exercício coletivamente por meio da poesia, das imagens e das múltiplas linguagens, discursos e vozes que compõem a programação.?

277249529 345776954157859 499753447787243686 n

A grande novidade para este ano é a expansão do festival para outros estados e o festival, que ocorreu por mais de duas décadas na capital paulista, terá, pela primeira vez em sua história, uma versão expandida para o Rio de Janeiro (RJ) e um evento em Salvador (BA), com atrações presenciais nessas cidades. A programação do festival deste ano propõe celebrar a diversidade cultural por meio das mais diferentes linguagens artísticas, com atrações de dentro e fora do país.

Dentre as inúmeras atrações, voltadas para públicos de todas as idades, estão a realização de shows e performances, exibição de filmes e documentários inéditos, espetáculos de dança, teatro e poesia, além de debates e diálogos sobre temas da atualidade. O festival também promoverá duas competições abertas à participação do público: o 2º DepicT! Brasil, versão brasileira da competição britânica de filmes de 90 segundos, e o 2º Slam CI, campeonato de poesia falada.

O line-up completo ainda não foi divulgado, mas alguns nomes confirmados são os de Anelis Assumpção, Yoùn, Filipe Catto, Natália Barros, O Bom e o Velho (Mário Manga e Ana Deriggi), além de cias. de dança e de teatro ? entre elas o FIELD, que é uma das maiores cias. de dança do Reino Unido e contará com 25 artistas brasileiros em sua participação no CIF. A plataforma de conteúdo on demand do festival permanecerá ativa até o final do evento. A partir de 04 de maio, o usuário poderá se cadastrar por este endereço e interagir com conteúdos que serão liberados para livre acesso.

279452287 366829275385960 9162691893161807951 n

O duo musical YOÙN estará presente na abertura do CIF Rio, no MAR, apresentando o repertório do seu primeiro disco, BXD IN JAZZ, que acaba de ser lançado nas plataformas digitais. Imagem reprodução https://www.facebook.com/culturainglesafestival

 

Serviço:

25º Cultura Inglesa Festival

O que é: Evento de cultura, arte e educação promovido há 25 anos pela Associação Cultura Inglesa São Paulo
Quando: De 04/05 a 04/06
Onde: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro e Salvador + Plataforma digital do 25º Cultura Inglesa Festival
Acesso: Gratuito
Clique aqui para acessar a página oficial do 25CIF

Amanda Sousa

Amanda Sousa

Amanda Sousa é mãe, feminista, tem 30 anos e é formada em Comunicação Social. Natural de São Paulo, atualmente mora em Jundiaí. É apaixonada por música desde que se entende por gente. Vai do punk ao pop, gosta de descobrir sons em todas as vertentes.

We would like to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this incredible material

Cultura Inglesa Festival anuncia 25ª edição em formato híbrido,

) [summary] => Curta Music Non Stop no Facebook Entre os dias 04 de maio e 04 de junho acontece o  Cultura Inglesa Festival (CIF) ?  edição comemorativa de 25 anos do maior festival da América Latina com foco na cultura britânica e na língua inglesa. Com uma programação versátil, multicultural e multilinguística, o CIF busca engajar a ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Entre os dias 04 de maio e 04 de junho acontece o  Cultura Inglesa Festival (CIF) ?  edição comemorativa de 25 anos do maior festival da América Latina com foco na cultura britânica e na língua inglesa. Com uma programação versátil, multicultural e multilinguística, o CIF busca engajar a sociedade no exercício de repensar o mundo por meio de uma experiência imersiva, sensorial e híbrida com eventos presenciais, híbridos (com público presente e transmissão na plataforma do festival) e conteúdo nacional e internacional exibido on demand. Nós do Music Non Stop acompanhamos coletiva de imprensa promovida pela organização do Festival e Liliane Rebelo, Head de Cultura e Sociedade da Cultura Inglesa explica a proposta inovadora para esta edição.

?O festival vai oferecer uma resposta sensível a este momento desafiador pela lente de  artistas, pensadores e educadores que estão refletindo sobre o presente e imaginando o futuro. O CIF propõe que façamos este exercício coletivamente por meio da poesia, das imagens e das múltiplas linguagens, discursos e vozes que compõem a programação.?

277249529 345776954157859 499753447787243686 n

A grande novidade para este ano é a expansão do festival para outros estados e o festival, que ocorreu por mais de duas décadas na capital paulista, terá, pela primeira vez em sua história, uma versão expandida para o Rio de Janeiro (RJ) e um evento em Salvador (BA), com atrações presenciais nessas cidades. A programação do festival deste ano propõe celebrar a diversidade cultural por meio das mais diferentes linguagens artísticas, com atrações de dentro e fora do país.

Dentre as inúmeras atrações, voltadas para públicos de todas as idades, estão a realização de shows e performances, exibição de filmes e documentários inéditos, espetáculos de dança, teatro e poesia, além de debates e diálogos sobre temas da atualidade. O festival também promoverá duas competições abertas à participação do público: o 2º DepicT! Brasil, versão brasileira da competição britânica de filmes de 90 segundos, e o 2º Slam CI, campeonato de poesia falada.

O line-up completo ainda não foi divulgado, mas alguns nomes confirmados são os de Anelis Assumpção, Yoùn, Filipe Catto, Natália Barros, O Bom e o Velho (Mário Manga e Ana Deriggi), além de cias. de dança e de teatro ? entre elas o FIELD, que é uma das maiores cias. de dança do Reino Unido e contará com 25 artistas brasileiros em sua participação no CIF. A plataforma de conteúdo on demand do festival permanecerá ativa até o final do evento. A partir de 04 de maio, o usuário poderá se cadastrar por este endereço e interagir com conteúdos que serão liberados para livre acesso.

279452287 366829275385960 9162691893161807951 n

O duo musical YOÙN estará presente na abertura do CIF Rio, no MAR, apresentando o repertório do seu primeiro disco, BXD IN JAZZ, que acaba de ser lançado nas plataformas digitais. Imagem reprodução https://www.facebook.com/culturainglesafestival

 

Serviço:

25º Cultura Inglesa Festival

O que é: Evento de cultura, arte e educação promovido há 25 anos pela Associação Cultura Inglesa São Paulo
Quando: De 04/05 a 04/06
Onde: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro e Salvador + Plataforma digital do 25º Cultura Inglesa Festival
Acesso: Gratuito
Clique aqui para acessar a página oficial do 25CIF

Amanda Sousa

Amanda Sousa

Amanda Sousa é mãe, feminista, tem 30 anos e é formada em Comunicação Social. Natural de São Paulo, atualmente mora em Jundiaí. É apaixonada por música desde que se entende por gente. Vai do punk ao pop, gosta de descobrir sons em todas as vertentes.

We would like to give thanks to the writer of this short article for this incredible material

Cultura Inglesa Festival anuncia 25ª edição em formato híbrido,

[date_timestamp] => 1651205007 ) [3] => Array ( [title] => Wyzwanie 3 Steps To Summer ? jad?ospis na 1. tydzie? ? Anna Lewandowska ? healthy plan by Ann [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/lifestyle/wyzwanie-3-steps-to-summer-jadlospis-na-1-tydzien-anna-lewandowska-healthy-plan-by-ann/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Paula Hooper ) [pubdate] => Fri, 29 Apr 2022 03:41:20 +0000 [category] => LifestyleAnnAnnahealthyjad?ospisLewandowskaplanstepsSummertydzie?Wyzwanie [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42151 [description] => Jak Wasze przygotowania do majowego wyzwania Three Steps To Summer? Mam nadziej?, ?e nie mo?ecie si? go doczeka? tak jak ja! Maj to pi?kny miesi?c, kiedy przyroda w pe?ni budzi si? do ?ycia, a wraz z ni? ? nasza energia do dzia?ania. Zaczynamy ju? w niedziel?! ?    Czas na dzia?anie  Co dla Was przygotowa?am? ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Jak Wasze przygotowania do majowego wyzwania Three Steps To Summer? Mam nadziej?, ?e nie mo?ecie si? go doczeka? tak jak ja! Maj to pi?kny miesi?c, kiedy przyroda w pe?ni budzi si? do ?ycia, a wraz z ni? ? nasza energia do dzia?ania. Zaczynamy ju? w niedziel?! ? 

 

Czas na dzia?anie 

Co dla Was przygotowa?am? W aplikacji Diet and Training by Ann (TUTAJ) znajdziecie ju? wkrótce specjalny program treningowy, dedykowany oczywi?cie naszemu wyzwaniu. Oprócz tego nie mo?e zabrakn?? motywacji, przydatnej wiedzy, wyciszenia (bo przecie? ka?dy z nas potrzebuje czasem chwili wytchnienia tylko dla siebie) i jad?ospisów (o nich wi?cej informacji znajdziecie poni?ej). Dieta, trening i balans to trzy elementy, które pozwalaj? zachowa? zdrowy styl ?ycia i wewn?trzn? równowag?, dlatego podczas wyzwania zadbamy o ka?dy z nich. Pami?tajcie, ?e ca?y czas mo?ecie si? zapisywa? do wzi?cia udzia?u w wyzwaniu TUTAJ ? do czego gor?co Was zach?cam, bo dla zapisanych Uczestników przewidujemy mi?e niespodzianki ?

 

Znajd? diet? dostosowan? do indywidualnych potrzeb

Wiele razy pytacie mnie, jaki rodzaj diety wybra?, rozpoczynaj?c swoj? przygod? z aplikacj? Diet & Training by Ann. Czy istnieje jedna odpowied?? Oczywi?cie, ?e nie. Ka?dy organizm jest inny, ma indywidualne potrzeby. Mi?dzy innymi z tego powodu oferuj? Wam wybór ró?nych rodzajów diet w mojej aplikacji: klasyczn? (na 3 ró?nych poziomach), wegetaria?sk?, diet? SMART (obejmuj?c? 3 posi?ki w ci?gu dnia), a tak?e diet? Low IG. 

Proponuj? Wam, by czas wyzwania by? okresem na wypróbowanie ró?nych jad?ospisów:

  • PIERWSZY TYDZIE? (1-7 maja): dieta SMART oparta na 3 posi?kach, która jest ?wietnym rozwi?zaniem je?li stosujecie Intermittent Fasting (IF);
  • DRUGI TYDZIE? (8-14 maja): dieta klasyczna na I poziomie;
  • TRZECI TYDZIE? (15-21 maja): dieta Low IG bazuj?ca na produktach o niskim indeksie glikemicznym.

Sprawdzicie, który rodzaj diety odpowiada Wam najbardziej.

 

Przez ca?y okres naszego wyzwania w aplikacji znajdziecie jad?ospisy specjalne na wymian? oznaczone ikonk? ?hantla?. Wystarczy, ?e:

  • wejdziecie w zak?adk? Dieta,
  • zejdziecie na sam dó? i wybierzecie opcj? Wymie? dzie?,
  • z listy dost?pnych jad?ospisów na wymian? wybierzecie specjalny jad?ospis dedykowany wyzwaniu ? ze wspomnian? ikon? hantla. 

 

 

Jad?ospis na pierwszy tydzie? wyzwania 

Pami?tajcie, ?e aby widoczne by?y u Was jad?ospisy specjalne, w ka?dym tygodniu niezb?dna b?dzie zmiana rodzaju diety! Zrobicie to bardzo ?atwo, przechodz?c do ?Ustawie? diety? i wybieraj?c rodzaj diety odpowiadaj?cy danemu tygodniowi (w pierwszym ? SMART, w drugim ? klasyczna na poziomie I, a w trzecim ? Low IG). Pó?niej wystarczy, ?e wymienicie jad?ospis na oznaczony ikonk? hantla.

 

Spis posi?ków na pierwszy tydzie? wyzwania z diety SMART znajdziecie TUTAJ. Zapowiada si? pysznie, prawda? ?

 

Je?li na co dzie? korzystacie z danego rodzaju diety (np. z diety SMART i nie musicie zmienia? ustawie? w pierwszym tygodniu wyzwania) lub dokonacie zmiany rodzaju i na Waszym koncie pojawi si? plan ?ywieniowy, mo?liwe, ?e Wasz jad?ospis b?dzie si? pokrywa? z wyzwaniowym (oznaczonym ikonk? hantla) ? nie powinni?cie si? niepokoi?. W takiej sytuacji nie musicie po prostu dokonywa? wymiany ?

Przypomn?, ?e w aplikacji mo?ecie korzysta? z opcji wymiany sk?adników i ca?ych da? (je?li nie lubicie danego produktu, wystarczy wybra? inny z dost?pnej listy zamienników) oraz listy zakupów ? wystarczy zaznaczy? interesuj?cy Was zakres dat, a potem uda? si? z gotow? list? do sklepu. Zach?cam Was, aby zapozna? si? z jad?ospisem kilka dni wcze?niej i przygotowa? wszystkie niezb?dne sk?adniki. A je?li które? z da? z wyzwania szczególnie przypadnie Wam do gustu, nie zapomnijcie doda? go do ulubionych posi?ków!

 

Dla wielu osób najtrudniejsze jest zmotywowanie si? do zmian i u?o?enie skutecznego planu dzia?ania. Ca?y czas pokazujecie mi, ?e wyzwania s? Wam potrzebne, z czego ogromnie si? ciesz? i mam nadziej?, ?e i tym razem b?dziecie ze mn?. Jestem przekonana, ?e nie b?dziecie ?a?owa?.

Three Steps To Summer ju? w niedziel?! ?

We would like to thank the author of this article for this remarkable content

Wyzwanie 3 Steps To Summer – jad?ospis na 1. tydzie? – Anna Lewandowska – healthy plan by Ann

) [summary] => Jak Wasze przygotowania do majowego wyzwania Three Steps To Summer? Mam nadziej?, ?e nie mo?ecie si? go doczeka? tak jak ja! Maj to pi?kny miesi?c, kiedy przyroda w pe?ni budzi si? do ?ycia, a wraz z ni? ? nasza energia do dzia?ania. Zaczynamy ju? w niedziel?! ?    Czas na dzia?anie  Co dla Was przygotowa?am? ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Jak Wasze przygotowania do majowego wyzwania Three Steps To Summer? Mam nadziej?, ?e nie mo?ecie si? go doczeka? tak jak ja! Maj to pi?kny miesi?c, kiedy przyroda w pe?ni budzi si? do ?ycia, a wraz z ni? ? nasza energia do dzia?ania. Zaczynamy ju? w niedziel?! ? 

 

Czas na dzia?anie 

Co dla Was przygotowa?am? W aplikacji Diet and Training by Ann (TUTAJ) znajdziecie ju? wkrótce specjalny program treningowy, dedykowany oczywi?cie naszemu wyzwaniu. Oprócz tego nie mo?e zabrakn?? motywacji, przydatnej wiedzy, wyciszenia (bo przecie? ka?dy z nas potrzebuje czasem chwili wytchnienia tylko dla siebie) i jad?ospisów (o nich wi?cej informacji znajdziecie poni?ej). Dieta, trening i balans to trzy elementy, które pozwalaj? zachowa? zdrowy styl ?ycia i wewn?trzn? równowag?, dlatego podczas wyzwania zadbamy o ka?dy z nich. Pami?tajcie, ?e ca?y czas mo?ecie si? zapisywa? do wzi?cia udzia?u w wyzwaniu TUTAJ ? do czego gor?co Was zach?cam, bo dla zapisanych Uczestników przewidujemy mi?e niespodzianki ?

 

Znajd? diet? dostosowan? do indywidualnych potrzeb

Wiele razy pytacie mnie, jaki rodzaj diety wybra?, rozpoczynaj?c swoj? przygod? z aplikacj? Diet & Training by Ann. Czy istnieje jedna odpowied?? Oczywi?cie, ?e nie. Ka?dy organizm jest inny, ma indywidualne potrzeby. Mi?dzy innymi z tego powodu oferuj? Wam wybór ró?nych rodzajów diet w mojej aplikacji: klasyczn? (na 3 ró?nych poziomach), wegetaria?sk?, diet? SMART (obejmuj?c? 3 posi?ki w ci?gu dnia), a tak?e diet? Low IG. 

Proponuj? Wam, by czas wyzwania by? okresem na wypróbowanie ró?nych jad?ospisów:

  • PIERWSZY TYDZIE? (1-7 maja): dieta SMART oparta na 3 posi?kach, która jest ?wietnym rozwi?zaniem je?li stosujecie Intermittent Fasting (IF);
  • DRUGI TYDZIE? (8-14 maja): dieta klasyczna na I poziomie;
  • TRZECI TYDZIE? (15-21 maja): dieta Low IG bazuj?ca na produktach o niskim indeksie glikemicznym.

Sprawdzicie, który rodzaj diety odpowiada Wam najbardziej.

 

Przez ca?y okres naszego wyzwania w aplikacji znajdziecie jad?ospisy specjalne na wymian? oznaczone ikonk? ?hantla?. Wystarczy, ?e:

  • wejdziecie w zak?adk? Dieta,
  • zejdziecie na sam dó? i wybierzecie opcj? Wymie? dzie?,
  • z listy dost?pnych jad?ospisów na wymian? wybierzecie specjalny jad?ospis dedykowany wyzwaniu ? ze wspomnian? ikon? hantla. 

 

 

Jad?ospis na pierwszy tydzie? wyzwania 

Pami?tajcie, ?e aby widoczne by?y u Was jad?ospisy specjalne, w ka?dym tygodniu niezb?dna b?dzie zmiana rodzaju diety! Zrobicie to bardzo ?atwo, przechodz?c do ?Ustawie? diety? i wybieraj?c rodzaj diety odpowiadaj?cy danemu tygodniowi (w pierwszym ? SMART, w drugim ? klasyczna na poziomie I, a w trzecim ? Low IG). Pó?niej wystarczy, ?e wymienicie jad?ospis na oznaczony ikonk? hantla.

 

Spis posi?ków na pierwszy tydzie? wyzwania z diety SMART znajdziecie TUTAJ. Zapowiada si? pysznie, prawda? ?

 

Je?li na co dzie? korzystacie z danego rodzaju diety (np. z diety SMART i nie musicie zmienia? ustawie? w pierwszym tygodniu wyzwania) lub dokonacie zmiany rodzaju i na Waszym koncie pojawi si? plan ?ywieniowy, mo?liwe, ?e Wasz jad?ospis b?dzie si? pokrywa? z wyzwaniowym (oznaczonym ikonk? hantla) ? nie powinni?cie si? niepokoi?. W takiej sytuacji nie musicie po prostu dokonywa? wymiany ?

Przypomn?, ?e w aplikacji mo?ecie korzysta? z opcji wymiany sk?adników i ca?ych da? (je?li nie lubicie danego produktu, wystarczy wybra? inny z dost?pnej listy zamienników) oraz listy zakupów ? wystarczy zaznaczy? interesuj?cy Was zakres dat, a potem uda? si? z gotow? list? do sklepu. Zach?cam Was, aby zapozna? si? z jad?ospisem kilka dni wcze?niej i przygotowa? wszystkie niezb?dne sk?adniki. A je?li które? z da? z wyzwania szczególnie przypadnie Wam do gustu, nie zapomnijcie doda? go do ulubionych posi?ków!

 

Dla wielu osób najtrudniejsze jest zmotywowanie si? do zmian i u?o?enie skutecznego planu dzia?ania. Ca?y czas pokazujecie mi, ?e wyzwania s? Wam potrzebne, z czego ogromnie si? ciesz? i mam nadziej?, ?e i tym razem b?dziecie ze mn?. Jestem przekonana, ?e nie b?dziecie ?a?owa?.

Three Steps To Summer ju? w niedziel?! ?

We would like to thank the author of this article for this remarkable content

Wyzwanie 3 Steps To Summer – jad?ospis na 1. tydzie? – Anna Lewandowska – healthy plan by Ann

[date_timestamp] => 1651203680 ) [4] => Array ( [title] => Jeff Goldblum Comparte Pensamientos Después De Ver Jurassic World: Dominion (y Ya Tiene Planes De Volver) ? Noticias Del Mundo En Español [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/celebrity/jeff-goldblum-comparte-pensamientos-despues-de-ver-jurassic-world-dominion-y-ya-tiene-planes-de-volver-noticias-del-mundo-en-espanol/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Sally Scully ) [pubdate] => Fri, 29 Apr 2022 03:27:28 +0000 [category] => CelebritycompartedeldespuésDominionEspañolGoldblumJeffJurassicmundoNoticiasPensamientosplanestieneverVolver [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42146 [description] => Mundo Jurásico: Dominio es sin duda uno de los lanzamientos más esperados de este año. La tercera película en el Mundo franquicia y sexta película de franquicia en general se dirige a la calendario de cine 2022 el 10 de junio. Todavía faltan varias semanas, pero resulta que el elenco ya vio la película completa, ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Mundo Jurásico: Dominio es sin duda uno de los lanzamientos más esperados de este año. La tercera película en el Mundo franquicia y sexta película de franquicia en general se dirige a la calendario de cine 2022 el 10 de junio. Todavía faltan varias semanas, pero resulta que el elenco ya vio la película completa, y Jeff Goldblum y Bryce Dallas Howard aparecieron en CinemaCon este año para hablar sobre su «infinita gratitud» por la franquicia y compartir su primeras tomas de la película. Ah, y el estreno de la nueva película también será un momento dulce para la familia de Jeff Goldblum.

Antes de compartir algunas imágenes nuevas, Jeff Goldblum y Bryce Dallas Howard hablaron un poco sobre sus experiencias en la icónica franquicia. Para Goldblum, ir al cine siempre ha sido la experiencia más «romántica» y «mágica» para él y parece genuinamente entusiasmado con lo que Dominio está llevando a la gran pantalla.

We want to say thanks to the author of this post for this awesome content

Jeff Goldblum Comparte Pensamientos Después De Ver Jurassic World: Dominion (y Ya Tiene Planes De Volver) – Noticias Del Mundo En Español

) [summary] => Mundo Jurásico: Dominio es sin duda uno de los lanzamientos más esperados de este año. La tercera película en el Mundo franquicia y sexta película de franquicia en general se dirige a la calendario de cine 2022 el 10 de junio. Todavía faltan varias semanas, pero resulta que el elenco ya vio la película completa, ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Mundo Jurásico: Dominio es sin duda uno de los lanzamientos más esperados de este año. La tercera película en el Mundo franquicia y sexta película de franquicia en general se dirige a la calendario de cine 2022 el 10 de junio. Todavía faltan varias semanas, pero resulta que el elenco ya vio la película completa, y Jeff Goldblum y Bryce Dallas Howard aparecieron en CinemaCon este año para hablar sobre su «infinita gratitud» por la franquicia y compartir su primeras tomas de la película. Ah, y el estreno de la nueva película también será un momento dulce para la familia de Jeff Goldblum.

Antes de compartir algunas imágenes nuevas, Jeff Goldblum y Bryce Dallas Howard hablaron un poco sobre sus experiencias en la icónica franquicia. Para Goldblum, ir al cine siempre ha sido la experiencia más «romántica» y «mágica» para él y parece genuinamente entusiasmado con lo que Dominio está llevando a la gran pantalla.

We want to say thanks to the author of this post for this awesome content

Jeff Goldblum Comparte Pensamientos Después De Ver Jurassic World: Dominion (y Ya Tiene Planes De Volver) – Noticias Del Mundo En Español

[date_timestamp] => 1651202848 ) [5] => Array ( [title] => Scientists call for cap on production to end plastic pollution [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/healthandscience/scientists-call-for-cap-on-production-to-end-plastic-pollution/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Fri, 29 Apr 2022 03:17:55 +0000 [category] => Health And SciencecapplasticpollutionproductionScientists [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42141 [description] => Journal Reference: Melanie Bergmann, Bethanie Carney Almroth, Susanne M. Brander, Tridibesh Dey, Dannielle S. Green, Sedat Gundogdu, Anja Krieger, Martin Wagner, Tony R. Walker. A global plastic treaty must cap production. Science, 2022; 376 (6592): 469 DOI: 10.1126/science.abq0082 Now, after the United Nations? historic decision to adopt a global treaty to end plastic pollution earlier ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Melanie Bergmann, Bethanie Carney Almroth, Susanne M. Brander, Tridibesh Dey, Dannielle S. Green, Sedat Gundogdu, Anja Krieger, Martin Wagner, Tony R. Walker. A global plastic treaty must cap production. Science, 2022; 376 (6592): 469 DOI: 10.1126/science.abq0082

Now, after the United Nations? historic decision to adopt a global treaty to end plastic pollution earlier this year, governmental negotiations on the agreement are set to begin on May 30th. These will foster intense debates on what kind of measures will be needed to end the pollution of the air, soils, rivers and oceans with plastic debris and microplastics.

In a letter to the journal Science, an international group of scientists and experts now argue for tackling the issue right at the source, by regulating, capping, and in the long term phasing out the production of new plastics.

Recycling not enough

?Even if we recycled better and tried to manage the waste as much as we can, we would still release more than 17 million tons of plastic per year into nature,? says Melanie Bergmann of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute, the initiator of the letter. ?If production just keeps growing and growing, we will be faced with a truly Sisyphean task,? she adds.

Research published in Science in 2020 shows that plastic emissions can only be cut by 79 per cent over the next 20 years if all solutions available today are implemented, including replacing some plastics with other materials, and improved recycling and waste management.

?The exponentially growing production is really the root cause of the problem, and the amounts of plastics we have produced thus far have already exceeded planetary boundaries,? says Bethanie Carney Almroth of the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. ?If we don?t tackle that, all other measures will fail to achieve the goal of substantially reducing the release of plastic into the environment,? she said.

Phasing out new plastics important

Phasing out the production of new plastics from fresh feedstocks should be part of a systemic solution to end plastic pollution, the experts from Canada, Germany, India, Norway, Sweden, Turkey, the UK and the U.S. argue. This approach is supported by the best science available today and in line with what political and legal experts proposed in Science last year.

Along with measures to address the consumption and demand side of the problem ? such as taxes ? a comprehensive approach must also cover the supply side, meaning the actual amount of plastics produced and put on the market.

Gradually cutting the production of new plastics will come with many societal, environmental and economic benefits, the scientists say.

Sedat Gündo?du of the Cukurova University, Turkey, says ?The massive production also feeds the plastic waste transfer from the Global North to the South. A production cap will facilitate getting rid of non-essential applications and reduce plastic waste exports.?

?We gain a lot of benefits from plastics but reducing production will increase the value of plastics, boost other measures to curb plastic pollution, help tackle climate change and promote our transition to a circular and sustainable economy,? adds Martin Wagner, an ecotoxicologist at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

We want to thank the author of this article for this amazing material

Scientists call for cap on production to end plastic pollution

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Melanie Bergmann, Bethanie Carney Almroth, Susanne M. Brander, Tridibesh Dey, Dannielle S. Green, Sedat Gundogdu, Anja Krieger, Martin Wagner, Tony R. Walker. A global plastic treaty must cap production. Science, 2022; 376 (6592): 469 DOI: 10.1126/science.abq0082 Now, after the United Nations? historic decision to adopt a global treaty to end plastic pollution earlier ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Melanie Bergmann, Bethanie Carney Almroth, Susanne M. Brander, Tridibesh Dey, Dannielle S. Green, Sedat Gundogdu, Anja Krieger, Martin Wagner, Tony R. Walker. A global plastic treaty must cap production. Science, 2022; 376 (6592): 469 DOI: 10.1126/science.abq0082

Now, after the United Nations? historic decision to adopt a global treaty to end plastic pollution earlier this year, governmental negotiations on the agreement are set to begin on May 30th. These will foster intense debates on what kind of measures will be needed to end the pollution of the air, soils, rivers and oceans with plastic debris and microplastics.

In a letter to the journal Science, an international group of scientists and experts now argue for tackling the issue right at the source, by regulating, capping, and in the long term phasing out the production of new plastics.

Recycling not enough

?Even if we recycled better and tried to manage the waste as much as we can, we would still release more than 17 million tons of plastic per year into nature,? says Melanie Bergmann of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute, the initiator of the letter. ?If production just keeps growing and growing, we will be faced with a truly Sisyphean task,? she adds.

Research published in Science in 2020 shows that plastic emissions can only be cut by 79 per cent over the next 20 years if all solutions available today are implemented, including replacing some plastics with other materials, and improved recycling and waste management.

?The exponentially growing production is really the root cause of the problem, and the amounts of plastics we have produced thus far have already exceeded planetary boundaries,? says Bethanie Carney Almroth of the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. ?If we don?t tackle that, all other measures will fail to achieve the goal of substantially reducing the release of plastic into the environment,? she said.

Phasing out new plastics important

Phasing out the production of new plastics from fresh feedstocks should be part of a systemic solution to end plastic pollution, the experts from Canada, Germany, India, Norway, Sweden, Turkey, the UK and the U.S. argue. This approach is supported by the best science available today and in line with what political and legal experts proposed in Science last year.

Along with measures to address the consumption and demand side of the problem ? such as taxes ? a comprehensive approach must also cover the supply side, meaning the actual amount of plastics produced and put on the market.

Gradually cutting the production of new plastics will come with many societal, environmental and economic benefits, the scientists say.

Sedat Gündo?du of the Cukurova University, Turkey, says ?The massive production also feeds the plastic waste transfer from the Global North to the South. A production cap will facilitate getting rid of non-essential applications and reduce plastic waste exports.?

?We gain a lot of benefits from plastics but reducing production will increase the value of plastics, boost other measures to curb plastic pollution, help tackle climate change and promote our transition to a circular and sustainable economy,? adds Martin Wagner, an ecotoxicologist at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

We want to thank the author of this article for this amazing material

Scientists call for cap on production to end plastic pollution

[date_timestamp] => 1651202275 ) [6] => Array ( [title] => Gene mutations that contribute to head and neck cancer also provide ?precision? treatment targets [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/healthandscience/gene-mutations-that-contribute-to-head-and-neck-cancer-also-provide-precision-treatment-targets/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Fri, 29 Apr 2022 02:00:56 +0000 [category] => Health And SciencecancercontributegeneMutationsneckprecisionprovidetargetstreatment [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42136 [description] => Journal Reference: Hoi-Lam Ngan, Chun-Ho Law, Yannie Chung Yan Choi, Jenny Yu-Sum Chan, Vivian Wai Yan Lui. Precision drugging of the MAPK pathway in head and neck cancer. npj Genomic Medicine, 2022; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41525-022-00293-1 Keys to targeting that vulnerability include individualized genomic analysis to identify a patient?s specific mutation, and finding the drugs ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Hoi-Lam Ngan, Chun-Ho Law, Yannie Chung Yan Choi, Jenny Yu-Sum Chan, Vivian Wai Yan Lui. Precision drugging of the MAPK pathway in head and neck cancer. npj Genomic Medicine, 2022; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41525-022-00293-1

Keys to targeting that vulnerability include individualized genomic analysis to identify a patient?s specific mutation, and finding the drugs that directly target it, investigations that should be given more attention in cancer therapy development, they report in a review article in the journal NPJ Genomic Medicine.

The MAPK pathway is a ?signaling hub? for cells important to the usual development of the head and neck region, and activating key pathway constituents, like the genes MAPK1 and HRAS, is known to drive the growth of a variety of cancers, says Dr. Vivian Wai Yan Lui, molecular pharmacologist and translational scientist at the Georgia Cancer Center and Medical College of Georgia and the paper?s corresponding author.

But the mutations in the genes in the MAPK pathway that enable tumor growth can also make it sensitive to drug therapy, says Lui. While a lot of discovery is still needed to find more mutations in the MAPK pathway and the drugs that target them, Lui says they are among the most logical treatment targets for this tough-to-treat cancer.

As she speaks, she is looking in her lab for drugs that kill head and neck primary tumors from patients, and at the genetics behind how they kill.

?It?s critical to the survival of the cancer,? says Lui, and every cancer type likely has one or more drug-sensitizing mutations that may vary in individuals depending on how they got cancer.

If these types of studies continue to find the methodology works, gene panels might need to be developed to expedite target discovery in this very heterogenous cancer, the scientists write.

More clinical trials around the globe at institutions like MCG and the Georgia Cancer Center are essential to identifying these specific mutations and drugs that target them in a precision manner, Lui notes.

Also, next on the horizon is combining this ?precision medicine? approach with immunotherapy that better enables a patient?s immune system to also target the cancer, she says.

Lui?s interest in the MAPK pathway solidified almost a decade ago at the University of Pittsburgh where she did her postdoctoral studies and eventually joined the faculty. Her mentor was Dr. Jennifer R. Grandis (now at the University of California, San Francisco), who led the head and neck cancer program there. The patient in his 30s, a heavy smoker and drinker, had stage four head and neck squamous cell carcinoma that had metastasized to his lymph nodes. The patient went to Pittsburgh for removal of the lymph nodes and the primary tumor but was fortunate enough to be eligible for a ?window of opportunity? trial there. Before starting any standard treatment, he received a trial drug for 13 days, in his case an epidermal growth factor receptor, or EGFR, blocker. The receptor is involved in cell growth, and is found on some normal cells, including in the head and neck area where there is a lot of natural cell turnover because of exposure to things like food and drink. However, in cancer cells, including head and neck cancer cells, EGFR is abundantly expressed for the rapid growth critical to a tumor?s spread and survival.

The patient was given the drug, erlotinib, which was not known to be particularly effective in these cancers but was being looked at to see if it would quieten signaling of this factor that was important to the cancer?s growth. When he went for surgery following the trial, the surgeon called to report there was no cancer on his tongue and studies of his 36 lymph nodes indicated they also now showed no evidence of cancer. The patient was still doing well by the time the Pittsburgh colleagues published the paper two years later in 2015 in JAMA Oncology.

His was rightly called an ?exceptional response,? the first Lui and her colleagues had found in head and neck cancer, and she had to figure out the mutation the drug targeted to enable such a response. Exceptional responders are how the National Cancer Institute describes people who have more than a six-month response to a therapy when they are running out of treatment options.

An EGFR gene mutation was a logical choice for his mutation. Harvard investigators had previously found that in non-small cell lung cancer, EGFR activating mutations could activate tumor cell growth, which also made tumor cells ?addicted? to the signal from the mutated EGFR. The drug erlotinib could break the addiction and inhibit cancer cell growth.

Lui didn?t find an EGFR mutation in this young man?s pretreatment biopsy but reasoned the mutation had to have something to do with the receptor?s signaling network. She was surprised ? and the first ? to find it was a MAPK1 gene mutation, MAPK1 p.E322K specifically, that could also be found in liver, breast and other cancers.

When they later engineered the mutation in head and neck cancer cells, the already aggressive cells grew even faster, Lui says of a mutation that can result from habits like heavy smoking and drinking. They would also find that the particular mutation was very common in the United States in patients with head and neck cancer, while there was a wider spectrum of mutations present in Asians with the cancer.

Erlotinib had actually failed in clinical trials because it wasn?t given to the right patients, which is what precision medicine is, Lui notes. In fact, laboratory studies had indicated that activation of MAPK1 confers resistance to erlotinib, she says, while this patient?s response clearly counters that. Follow up work by Grandis indicated that in patients actually, the higher the MAPK1 activation, the better the cancer responded to erlotinib.

To help move cancer treatment forward, Lui encourages physicians who come across these types of ?exceptional responses? to report them, work with scientists to study them, then pursue clinical trials when appropriate.

For patients, her message is not to give up because with more high-level analysis of tumors, there might be a certain mutation that makes their cancer vulnerable to a specific medication, she says of these ?gene-drug responses? that are the focal point of her translational work.

?There are secrets that make the cancer vulnerable,? Lui says. ?When cancer cells have an important gene mutation that they are activating or that cancer cells are addicted to for survival, then when you hit that signaling pathway, the cancer cells will die or be really well controlled.?

Prior to the era of genomic medicine, when scientists began to identify and target a specific gene mutation, ?non-precision? drug treatment of the MAPK pathway in head and neck cancers as well as other cancers were ?futile,? and typically ?failed miserably? in clinical trials, Lui and her colleagues write.

While the reasons may be uncertain, they likely include the wrong drug for that specific, problematic mutation, Lui says, as well as the fact that some MAPK pathway mutations are known to convey drug resistance.

Either way, there is a lot of work to do. Today there are just a handful of drugs that target specific, cancer-causing mutations in head and neck cancer but there aren?t effective precision drugs for about 80% of patients, Lui and her coauthors write.

But there is mounting evidence that targeting specific MAPK pathway mutations in the pathway like MAPK1, HRAS, KRAS and BRAF can be very effective for these patients.

As an example, the RAS inhibitor tipifarnib received Breakthrough Therapy Designation by the Food and Drug Administration in February 2021 for patients with a specific recurrent or metastatic HRAS-mutant head and neck squamous cell cancer. HRAS is involved in cell growth signaling.

Also, studies indicate that EGFR targeted therapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, increases progression-free survival to a median of 18.9 months and median overall survival beyond three years and reduces death rates about 52%. In 2016 the Food and Drug Administration modified its approval of erlotinib to treat non-small cell lung cancer patients with the specific EGFR mutations. In 2020, the FDA approved erlotinib in combination with ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor, or VEGF, which tumors use to grow the blood vessels they need to thrive, as a frontline treatment for these cancers. The FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation to tipifarnib, an inhibitor of a protein which has the downstream effect of interfering in this case with mutations of the gene HRAS, which is also involved in cell division and in the MAPK pathway. There are now more than 1.5 million people with non-small cell lung cancer on precision medicine because of investigators who continued to examine the initial few responders, Lui says.

Lui is a native of Hong Kong, who was on the faculty of The Chinese University of Hong Kong before joining the MCG faculty in October 2021. In 2020 Lui and her colleagues reported that MAPK pathway mutations are a factor in about one-fifth of head and neck cancer patients and that ?unexpectedly? these mutations are associated with longer patient survival than other causes like human papillomavirus.

Head and neck cancer is typically aggressive and often both the disease and its treatment are painful and disfiguring. It carries a higher risk of suicide than many other cancer types. The incidence of head and neck cancer is going up across the world, with causes including tobacco and/or alcohol use, air pollutants, cancer causing viruses like the sexually transmitted HPV, and Epstein-Barr virus, one of the most common viruses that is primarily spread by saliva and can cause problems like infectious mononucleosis. Other causes include poor dental hygiene and chewing betel nut, a stimulant which comes from the Areca palm plant, and is used as a recreational drug and as a still-unproven treatment for problems like schizophrenia and glaucoma. Chewing betel nut is a common cultural practice in South and Southeast Asia and the Asian Pacific. It?s often chewed with products like tobacco and has been associated with cancer and a host of other medical problems like a slow heart rate and stomach ulcers.

The carcinogens largely damage the lining of the head and neck region resulting in one or more mutations that can lead to cancer.

We want to say thanks to the author of this article for this awesome material

Gene mutations that contribute to head and neck cancer also provide ?precision? treatment targets

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Hoi-Lam Ngan, Chun-Ho Law, Yannie Chung Yan Choi, Jenny Yu-Sum Chan, Vivian Wai Yan Lui. Precision drugging of the MAPK pathway in head and neck cancer. npj Genomic Medicine, 2022; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41525-022-00293-1 Keys to targeting that vulnerability include individualized genomic analysis to identify a patient?s specific mutation, and finding the drugs ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Hoi-Lam Ngan, Chun-Ho Law, Yannie Chung Yan Choi, Jenny Yu-Sum Chan, Vivian Wai Yan Lui. Precision drugging of the MAPK pathway in head and neck cancer. npj Genomic Medicine, 2022; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41525-022-00293-1

Keys to targeting that vulnerability include individualized genomic analysis to identify a patient?s specific mutation, and finding the drugs that directly target it, investigations that should be given more attention in cancer therapy development, they report in a review article in the journal NPJ Genomic Medicine.

The MAPK pathway is a ?signaling hub? for cells important to the usual development of the head and neck region, and activating key pathway constituents, like the genes MAPK1 and HRAS, is known to drive the growth of a variety of cancers, says Dr. Vivian Wai Yan Lui, molecular pharmacologist and translational scientist at the Georgia Cancer Center and Medical College of Georgia and the paper?s corresponding author.

But the mutations in the genes in the MAPK pathway that enable tumor growth can also make it sensitive to drug therapy, says Lui. While a lot of discovery is still needed to find more mutations in the MAPK pathway and the drugs that target them, Lui says they are among the most logical treatment targets for this tough-to-treat cancer.

As she speaks, she is looking in her lab for drugs that kill head and neck primary tumors from patients, and at the genetics behind how they kill.

?It?s critical to the survival of the cancer,? says Lui, and every cancer type likely has one or more drug-sensitizing mutations that may vary in individuals depending on how they got cancer.

If these types of studies continue to find the methodology works, gene panels might need to be developed to expedite target discovery in this very heterogenous cancer, the scientists write.

More clinical trials around the globe at institutions like MCG and the Georgia Cancer Center are essential to identifying these specific mutations and drugs that target them in a precision manner, Lui notes.

Also, next on the horizon is combining this ?precision medicine? approach with immunotherapy that better enables a patient?s immune system to also target the cancer, she says.

Lui?s interest in the MAPK pathway solidified almost a decade ago at the University of Pittsburgh where she did her postdoctoral studies and eventually joined the faculty. Her mentor was Dr. Jennifer R. Grandis (now at the University of California, San Francisco), who led the head and neck cancer program there. The patient in his 30s, a heavy smoker and drinker, had stage four head and neck squamous cell carcinoma that had metastasized to his lymph nodes. The patient went to Pittsburgh for removal of the lymph nodes and the primary tumor but was fortunate enough to be eligible for a ?window of opportunity? trial there. Before starting any standard treatment, he received a trial drug for 13 days, in his case an epidermal growth factor receptor, or EGFR, blocker. The receptor is involved in cell growth, and is found on some normal cells, including in the head and neck area where there is a lot of natural cell turnover because of exposure to things like food and drink. However, in cancer cells, including head and neck cancer cells, EGFR is abundantly expressed for the rapid growth critical to a tumor?s spread and survival.

The patient was given the drug, erlotinib, which was not known to be particularly effective in these cancers but was being looked at to see if it would quieten signaling of this factor that was important to the cancer?s growth. When he went for surgery following the trial, the surgeon called to report there was no cancer on his tongue and studies of his 36 lymph nodes indicated they also now showed no evidence of cancer. The patient was still doing well by the time the Pittsburgh colleagues published the paper two years later in 2015 in JAMA Oncology.

His was rightly called an ?exceptional response,? the first Lui and her colleagues had found in head and neck cancer, and she had to figure out the mutation the drug targeted to enable such a response. Exceptional responders are how the National Cancer Institute describes people who have more than a six-month response to a therapy when they are running out of treatment options.

An EGFR gene mutation was a logical choice for his mutation. Harvard investigators had previously found that in non-small cell lung cancer, EGFR activating mutations could activate tumor cell growth, which also made tumor cells ?addicted? to the signal from the mutated EGFR. The drug erlotinib could break the addiction and inhibit cancer cell growth.

Lui didn?t find an EGFR mutation in this young man?s pretreatment biopsy but reasoned the mutation had to have something to do with the receptor?s signaling network. She was surprised ? and the first ? to find it was a MAPK1 gene mutation, MAPK1 p.E322K specifically, that could also be found in liver, breast and other cancers.

When they later engineered the mutation in head and neck cancer cells, the already aggressive cells grew even faster, Lui says of a mutation that can result from habits like heavy smoking and drinking. They would also find that the particular mutation was very common in the United States in patients with head and neck cancer, while there was a wider spectrum of mutations present in Asians with the cancer.

Erlotinib had actually failed in clinical trials because it wasn?t given to the right patients, which is what precision medicine is, Lui notes. In fact, laboratory studies had indicated that activation of MAPK1 confers resistance to erlotinib, she says, while this patient?s response clearly counters that. Follow up work by Grandis indicated that in patients actually, the higher the MAPK1 activation, the better the cancer responded to erlotinib.

To help move cancer treatment forward, Lui encourages physicians who come across these types of ?exceptional responses? to report them, work with scientists to study them, then pursue clinical trials when appropriate.

For patients, her message is not to give up because with more high-level analysis of tumors, there might be a certain mutation that makes their cancer vulnerable to a specific medication, she says of these ?gene-drug responses? that are the focal point of her translational work.

?There are secrets that make the cancer vulnerable,? Lui says. ?When cancer cells have an important gene mutation that they are activating or that cancer cells are addicted to for survival, then when you hit that signaling pathway, the cancer cells will die or be really well controlled.?

Prior to the era of genomic medicine, when scientists began to identify and target a specific gene mutation, ?non-precision? drug treatment of the MAPK pathway in head and neck cancers as well as other cancers were ?futile,? and typically ?failed miserably? in clinical trials, Lui and her colleagues write.

While the reasons may be uncertain, they likely include the wrong drug for that specific, problematic mutation, Lui says, as well as the fact that some MAPK pathway mutations are known to convey drug resistance.

Either way, there is a lot of work to do. Today there are just a handful of drugs that target specific, cancer-causing mutations in head and neck cancer but there aren?t effective precision drugs for about 80% of patients, Lui and her coauthors write.

But there is mounting evidence that targeting specific MAPK pathway mutations in the pathway like MAPK1, HRAS, KRAS and BRAF can be very effective for these patients.

As an example, the RAS inhibitor tipifarnib received Breakthrough Therapy Designation by the Food and Drug Administration in February 2021 for patients with a specific recurrent or metastatic HRAS-mutant head and neck squamous cell cancer. HRAS is involved in cell growth signaling.

Also, studies indicate that EGFR targeted therapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, increases progression-free survival to a median of 18.9 months and median overall survival beyond three years and reduces death rates about 52%. In 2016 the Food and Drug Administration modified its approval of erlotinib to treat non-small cell lung cancer patients with the specific EGFR mutations. In 2020, the FDA approved erlotinib in combination with ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor, or VEGF, which tumors use to grow the blood vessels they need to thrive, as a frontline treatment for these cancers. The FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation to tipifarnib, an inhibitor of a protein which has the downstream effect of interfering in this case with mutations of the gene HRAS, which is also involved in cell division and in the MAPK pathway. There are now more than 1.5 million people with non-small cell lung cancer on precision medicine because of investigators who continued to examine the initial few responders, Lui says.

Lui is a native of Hong Kong, who was on the faculty of The Chinese University of Hong Kong before joining the MCG faculty in October 2021. In 2020 Lui and her colleagues reported that MAPK pathway mutations are a factor in about one-fifth of head and neck cancer patients and that ?unexpectedly? these mutations are associated with longer patient survival than other causes like human papillomavirus.

Head and neck cancer is typically aggressive and often both the disease and its treatment are painful and disfiguring. It carries a higher risk of suicide than many other cancer types. The incidence of head and neck cancer is going up across the world, with causes including tobacco and/or alcohol use, air pollutants, cancer causing viruses like the sexually transmitted HPV, and Epstein-Barr virus, one of the most common viruses that is primarily spread by saliva and can cause problems like infectious mononucleosis. Other causes include poor dental hygiene and chewing betel nut, a stimulant which comes from the Areca palm plant, and is used as a recreational drug and as a still-unproven treatment for problems like schizophrenia and glaucoma. Chewing betel nut is a common cultural practice in South and Southeast Asia and the Asian Pacific. It?s often chewed with products like tobacco and has been associated with cancer and a host of other medical problems like a slow heart rate and stomach ulcers.

The carcinogens largely damage the lining of the head and neck region resulting in one or more mutations that can lead to cancer.

We want to say thanks to the author of this article for this awesome material

Gene mutations that contribute to head and neck cancer also provide ?precision? treatment targets

[date_timestamp] => 1651197656 ) [7] => Array ( [title] => Unravelling the origins of the human spine [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/healthandscience/unravelling-the-origins-of-the-human-spine/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:43:57 +0000 [category] => Health And SciencehumanOriginsspineUnravelling [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42131 [description] => Journal Reference: Marina Sanaki-Matsumiya, Mitsuhiro Matsuda, Nicola Gritti, Fumio Nakaki, James Sharpe, Vikas Trivedi, Miki Ebisuya. Periodic formation of epithelial somites from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Communications, 2022; 13 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29967-1 The spinal column consists of 33 vertebrae, which form pairs of precursor structures called somites. Somites give rise to not only our ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Marina Sanaki-Matsumiya, Mitsuhiro Matsuda, Nicola Gritti, Fumio Nakaki, James Sharpe, Vikas Trivedi, Miki Ebisuya. Periodic formation of epithelial somites from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Communications, 2022; 13 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29967-1

The spinal column consists of 33 vertebrae, which form pairs of precursor structures called somites. Somites give rise to not only our vertebrae, but also our ribs and skeletal muscles. To ensure that these structures are formed correctly, somite development is tightly regulated, and each pair of somites arises at a particular sequential time point in development. This process is controlled by the segmentation clock, which is a group of genes that creates oscillatory waves, every wave giving rise to a new pair of somites.

?For the first time, we have been able to create periodic pairs of human mature somites linked to the segmentation clock in the lab,? said Marina Sanaki-Matsumiya, first author of the study published in Nature Communications. Using this approach, the researchers developed a 3D in vitro model of human somite formation, also known as ?somitogenesis?.

Creating a robust somitogenesis process

The team cultured human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) in the presence of a cocktail of signalling molecules that induce cell differentiation. Three days later, the cells started to elongate and create anterior (top) and posterior (bottom) axes. At that point, the scientists added Matrigel to the culture mix. Matrigel is what some scientists call the magic powder: a protein mixture that is critical to many developmental processes. This process eventually led to the formation of somitoids ? in vitro equivalents of human somite precursor structures.

To test whether the segmentation clock regulates somitogenesis in these somitoids, the researchers monitored the expression patterns of HES7, the core gene involved in the process. They found clear evidence of oscillations, especially when somitogenesis was about to start. The somites that formed also had clear markers of epithelization ? an important step in their maturation.

Somite size matters

The Ebisuya group studies how and why we humans are different from other species when it comes to embryonic development. One of the model systems they use to understand interspecies differences is the segmentation clock. In 2020, the group uncovered that the oscillation period of the human segmentation clock is longer than the mouse segmentation clock.

The current study also shows a link between the size of somites and the segmentation clock. ?The somites that were generated had a constant size, independently of the number of cells used for the initial somitoid. The somite size did not increase even if the initial cell number did.? explained Sanaki-Matsumiya. ?This suggests that the somites have a preferred species-specific size, which might be determined by local cell-cell interactions, the segmentation clock, or other mechanisms.?

To study this further, Miki Ebisuya and her group are now planning to grow somitoids of different species and compare them. The researchers are already working on several mammalian species, including rabbits, cattle, and rhinoceroses, setting up a ?stem cell zoo? in the lab.

?Our next project will focus on creating somitoids from different species, measure their cell proliferation and cell migration speed to establish what and how somitogenesis is different among species,? said Ebisuya.

We want to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this amazing web content

Unravelling the origins of the human spine

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Marina Sanaki-Matsumiya, Mitsuhiro Matsuda, Nicola Gritti, Fumio Nakaki, James Sharpe, Vikas Trivedi, Miki Ebisuya. Periodic formation of epithelial somites from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Communications, 2022; 13 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29967-1 The spinal column consists of 33 vertebrae, which form pairs of precursor structures called somites. Somites give rise to not only our ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Marina Sanaki-Matsumiya, Mitsuhiro Matsuda, Nicola Gritti, Fumio Nakaki, James Sharpe, Vikas Trivedi, Miki Ebisuya. Periodic formation of epithelial somites from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Communications, 2022; 13 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29967-1

The spinal column consists of 33 vertebrae, which form pairs of precursor structures called somites. Somites give rise to not only our vertebrae, but also our ribs and skeletal muscles. To ensure that these structures are formed correctly, somite development is tightly regulated, and each pair of somites arises at a particular sequential time point in development. This process is controlled by the segmentation clock, which is a group of genes that creates oscillatory waves, every wave giving rise to a new pair of somites.

?For the first time, we have been able to create periodic pairs of human mature somites linked to the segmentation clock in the lab,? said Marina Sanaki-Matsumiya, first author of the study published in Nature Communications. Using this approach, the researchers developed a 3D in vitro model of human somite formation, also known as ?somitogenesis?.

Creating a robust somitogenesis process

The team cultured human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) in the presence of a cocktail of signalling molecules that induce cell differentiation. Three days later, the cells started to elongate and create anterior (top) and posterior (bottom) axes. At that point, the scientists added Matrigel to the culture mix. Matrigel is what some scientists call the magic powder: a protein mixture that is critical to many developmental processes. This process eventually led to the formation of somitoids ? in vitro equivalents of human somite precursor structures.

To test whether the segmentation clock regulates somitogenesis in these somitoids, the researchers monitored the expression patterns of HES7, the core gene involved in the process. They found clear evidence of oscillations, especially when somitogenesis was about to start. The somites that formed also had clear markers of epithelization ? an important step in their maturation.

Somite size matters

The Ebisuya group studies how and why we humans are different from other species when it comes to embryonic development. One of the model systems they use to understand interspecies differences is the segmentation clock. In 2020, the group uncovered that the oscillation period of the human segmentation clock is longer than the mouse segmentation clock.

The current study also shows a link between the size of somites and the segmentation clock. ?The somites that were generated had a constant size, independently of the number of cells used for the initial somitoid. The somite size did not increase even if the initial cell number did.? explained Sanaki-Matsumiya. ?This suggests that the somites have a preferred species-specific size, which might be determined by local cell-cell interactions, the segmentation clock, or other mechanisms.?

To study this further, Miki Ebisuya and her group are now planning to grow somitoids of different species and compare them. The researchers are already working on several mammalian species, including rabbits, cattle, and rhinoceroses, setting up a ?stem cell zoo? in the lab.

?Our next project will focus on creating somitoids from different species, measure their cell proliferation and cell migration speed to establish what and how somitogenesis is different among species,? said Ebisuya.

We want to give thanks to the author of this write-up for this amazing web content

Unravelling the origins of the human spine

[date_timestamp] => 1651193037 ) [8] => Array ( [title] => Sampling the deep graveyard of Earth?s earliest crust [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/healthandscience/sampling-the-deep-graveyard-of-earths-earliest-crust/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Tony Grantly ) [pubdate] => Thu, 28 Apr 2022 23:27:08 +0000 [category] => Health And SciencecrustDeepearliestEarthsgraveyardsampling [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42124 [description] => Journal Reference: Jonas Tusch, J. Elis Hoffmann, Eric Hasenstab, Mario Fischer-Gödde, Chris S. Marien, Allan H. Wilson, Carsten Münker. Long-term preservation of Hadean protocrust in Earth?s mantle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2022; 119 (18) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2120241119 This finding is unexpected because the plate tectonic regime of our planet progressively recycles crustal material ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Jonas Tusch, J. Elis Hoffmann, Eric Hasenstab, Mario Fischer-Gödde, Chris S. Marien, Allan H. Wilson, Carsten Münker. Long-term preservation of Hadean protocrust in Earth?s mantle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2022; 119 (18) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2120241119

This finding is unexpected because the plate tectonic regime of our planet progressively recycles crustal material via large-scale mantle convection at much smaller time scales. Therefore, it has been assumed that vestiges of early geological processes on Earth can only be found as analogues, on other terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars), asteroids, or the Moon. However, according to their study ?Long-term preservation of Hadean protocrust in Earth?s mantle?, which has recently appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), magmatic rocks that erupted throughout Earth?s history can still carry signatures that provide detailed information about the nature of the first crust, its long-term preservation in a graveyard in the lower-most mantle, and its resurrection via younger volcanism.

For their study, the geologists investigated up to 3.55 billion years old rocks from southern Africa. The analysis of these rocks revealed small anomalies in the isotope composition of the element tungsten (W). The origin of these isotope anomalies, namely the relative abundance of 182W, relates to geological processes that must have occurred immediately after the formation of the Earth more than 4.5 billion years ago.

Model calculations by the authors show that the observed 182W isotope patterns are best explained by the recycling of Earth?s earliest crust into mantle material that ascends via plumes from the lower mantle to generate lavas erupting at Earth?s surface. Intriguingly, the study shows that similar isotope patterns can be observed in distinct types of modern volcanic rocks (ocean island basalts), which demonstrates that Earth?s earliest crust is still buried in the lowermost mantle.

?We assume that the lower layers of the crust ? or the roots of the primordial continents ? became heavier than their surroundings due to a geological maturation process and therefore sank into the Earth?s underlying mantle. Similar to a lava lamp,? geochemist Dr Jonas Tusch from the University of Cologne?s Institute of Geology and Mineralogy remarked. ?This fascinating insight provides a geochemical fingerprint of the young Earth, allowing us to better understand how large continents formed over the history of our planet. It also explains how our current, oxygen-rich atmosphere evolved ? setting the stage for the origin of complex life,? Dr Elis Hoffmann of Freie Universität Berlin added.

The geochemical fingerprint of the early Earth can also be compared with findings about other planets obtained during space missions. For example, data from Mars missions and studies of Martian meteorites show that Mars still has a very old surface due to the lack of plate tectonics, and that its composition may correspond to that of the young Earth.

We want to give thanks to the author of this post for this incredible content

Sampling the deep graveyard of Earth?s earliest crust

) [summary] => Journal Reference: Jonas Tusch, J. Elis Hoffmann, Eric Hasenstab, Mario Fischer-Gödde, Chris S. Marien, Allan H. Wilson, Carsten Münker. Long-term preservation of Hadean protocrust in Earth?s mantle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2022; 119 (18) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2120241119 This finding is unexpected because the plate tectonic regime of our planet progressively recycles crustal material ... Read more [atom_content] =>

Journal Reference:

  1. Jonas Tusch, J. Elis Hoffmann, Eric Hasenstab, Mario Fischer-Gödde, Chris S. Marien, Allan H. Wilson, Carsten Münker. Long-term preservation of Hadean protocrust in Earth?s mantle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2022; 119 (18) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2120241119

This finding is unexpected because the plate tectonic regime of our planet progressively recycles crustal material via large-scale mantle convection at much smaller time scales. Therefore, it has been assumed that vestiges of early geological processes on Earth can only be found as analogues, on other terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars), asteroids, or the Moon. However, according to their study ?Long-term preservation of Hadean protocrust in Earth?s mantle?, which has recently appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), magmatic rocks that erupted throughout Earth?s history can still carry signatures that provide detailed information about the nature of the first crust, its long-term preservation in a graveyard in the lower-most mantle, and its resurrection via younger volcanism.

For their study, the geologists investigated up to 3.55 billion years old rocks from southern Africa. The analysis of these rocks revealed small anomalies in the isotope composition of the element tungsten (W). The origin of these isotope anomalies, namely the relative abundance of 182W, relates to geological processes that must have occurred immediately after the formation of the Earth more than 4.5 billion years ago.

Model calculations by the authors show that the observed 182W isotope patterns are best explained by the recycling of Earth?s earliest crust into mantle material that ascends via plumes from the lower mantle to generate lavas erupting at Earth?s surface. Intriguingly, the study shows that similar isotope patterns can be observed in distinct types of modern volcanic rocks (ocean island basalts), which demonstrates that Earth?s earliest crust is still buried in the lowermost mantle.

?We assume that the lower layers of the crust ? or the roots of the primordial continents ? became heavier than their surroundings due to a geological maturation process and therefore sank into the Earth?s underlying mantle. Similar to a lava lamp,? geochemist Dr Jonas Tusch from the University of Cologne?s Institute of Geology and Mineralogy remarked. ?This fascinating insight provides a geochemical fingerprint of the young Earth, allowing us to better understand how large continents formed over the history of our planet. It also explains how our current, oxygen-rich atmosphere evolved ? setting the stage for the origin of complex life,? Dr Elis Hoffmann of Freie Universität Berlin added.

The geochemical fingerprint of the early Earth can also be compared with findings about other planets obtained during space missions. For example, data from Mars missions and studies of Martian meteorites show that Mars still has a very old surface due to the lack of plate tectonics, and that its composition may correspond to that of the young Earth.

We want to give thanks to the author of this post for this incredible content

Sampling the deep graveyard of Earth?s earliest crust

[date_timestamp] => 1651188428 ) [9] => Array ( [title] => Au col du Portillon, entre la France et l?Espagne, la frontière de l?absurde [link] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/world-news/au-col-du-portillon-entre-la-france-et-lespagne-la-frontiere-de-labsurde/ [dc] => Array ( [creator] => Paula Hooper ) [pubdate] => Thu, 28 Apr 2022 23:26:29 +0000 [category] => World NewscolentreFrancefrontièrelabsurdelEspagnePortillon [guid] => https://fuzzyskunk.com/?p=42118 [description] => Par Zineb Dryef Publié aujourd?hui à 01h20 Réservé à nos abonnés RécitL?ordre est tombé d?en haut. Fin 2020, Emmanuel Macron annonce la fermeture d?une quinzaine de points de passage entre la France et l?Espagne. Du jour au lendemain, le quotidien des habitants des Pyrénées est bouleversé par une décision révélatrice du fossé qui s?accroît entre ... Read more [content] => Array ( [encoded] =>
Par Zineb Dryef

Publié aujourd?hui à 01h20

C?est une histoire minuscule. Un col routier fermé aux confins des Pyrénées françaises des mois durant sans que personne n?y comprenne rien. Ni les Français ni les Espagnols des villages alentour, pas même les élus et les forces de l?ordre chargés de faire respecter cette fermeture. L?histoire de cette « mauvaise décision », qui a compliqué la vie de milliers de personnes pendant treize mois, débute à l?automne 2020.

Les journaux gardent en mémoire la visite d?Emmanuel Macron au Perthus, le poste-frontière des Pyrénées-Orientales, département devenu depuis quelques années la voie privilégiée des migrants venus du Maroc, d?Algérie et d?Afrique subsaharienne. Sous un grand soleil, inhabituel un 5 novembre, le président de la République, un masque noir sur le visage, avait alors annoncé une fermeture temporaire des frontières françaises d?une ampleur jamais connue depuis la création de l?espace Schengen, en 1985 : une quinzaine de points de passage, situés tout le long des 650 kilomètres de frontière entre la France et l?Espagne, seraient désormais barrés.

De novembre?2020 à février?2022, du fait de la fermeture du col du Portillon, les habitants de Bagnères-de-Luchon ont dû, pour accéder au val d?Aran, en Espagne, faire un détour d?une vingtaine de kilomètres.

L?objectif officiel, selon les autorités, étant « d?intensifier très fortement les contrôles aux frontières » pour « lutter contre la menace terroriste, la lutte contre les trafics et la contrebande (drogue, cigarettes, alcools?) mais aussi contre l?immigration clandestine ». Aux préfets concernés de s?organiser. Ils ont eu deux mois.

Une mesure « ubuesque »

6 janvier 2021. Loin du Perthus, à quelque 300 kilomètres de là, il est 20 heures lorsque les premières automobiles sont refoulées au col du Portillon, l?un des points de passage concernés par cette mesure. Ce jour-là, il n?y a pourtant pas plus de neige que d?habitude. La frontière est fermée jusqu?à nouvel ordre, annoncent les gendarmes. Lutte contre le terrorisme. Les refoulés sont dubitatifs. Et inquiets. La dernière fois qu?on les a rembarrés comme ça, c?était au lendemain de l?attaque de Charlie Hebdo, quand, comme partout, les contrôles aux frontières avaient été renforcés. Ça aurait recommencé ? A la radio et à la télévision, on ne parle pourtant que de l?assaut du Capitole, à Washington, par des centaines de trumpistes survoltés, pas d?une attaque en France.

« Ça n?a l?air de rien, mais, deux fois cinquante minutes au lieu de deux fois quinze minutes, ça vous change une journée. » Michel, retraité

Comme il n?existe pas trente-six manières de matérialiser une frontière, Etienne Guyot, le préfet de la région Occitanie et de la Haute-Garonne, a fait installer de gros plots en béton armé et autant d?agents de la police aux frontières (PAF) en travers de cette route qui permet de relier Bagnères-de-Luchon à la ville espagnole de Bossòst, située dans le val d?Aran. Au bout de quelques jours, parce que les plots étaient trop espacés, les agents ont fait ajouter des tas de gravier et de terre pour éviter le passage des motos et des vélos. Mais les deux-roues ont aimé gravir les petits cailloux. De gros rochers sont donc venus compléter l?installation.

Il vous reste 87.29% de cet article à lire. La suite est réservée aux abonnés.

We would like to say thanks to the author of this write-up for this incredible content

Au col du Portillon, entre la France et l?Espagne, la frontière de l?absurde

) [summary] => Par Zineb Dryef Publié aujourd?hui à 01h20 Réservé à nos abonnés RécitL?ordre est tombé d?en haut. Fin 2020, Emmanuel Macron annonce la fermeture d?une quinzaine de points de passage entre la France et l?Espagne. Du jour au lendemain, le quotidien des habitants des Pyrénées est bouleversé par une décision révélatrice du fossé qui s?accroît entre ... Read more [atom_content] =>
Par Zineb Dryef

Publié aujourd?hui à 01h20

C?est une histoire minuscule. Un col routier fermé aux confins des Pyrénées françaises des mois durant sans que personne n?y comprenne rien. Ni les Français ni les Espagnols des villages alentour, pas même les élus et les forces de l?ordre chargés de faire respecter cette fermeture. L?histoire de cette « mauvaise décision », qui a compliqué la vie de milliers de personnes pendant treize mois, débute à l?automne 2020.

Les journaux gardent en mémoire la visite d?Emmanuel Macron au Perthus, le poste-frontière des Pyrénées-Orientales, département devenu depuis quelques années la voie privilégiée des migrants venus du Maroc, d?Algérie et d?Afrique subsaharienne. Sous un grand soleil, inhabituel un 5 novembre, le président de la République, un masque noir sur le visage, avait alors annoncé une fermeture temporaire des frontières françaises d?une ampleur jamais connue depuis la création de l?espace Schengen, en 1985 : une quinzaine de points de passage, situés tout le long des 650 kilomètres de frontière entre la France et l?Espagne, seraient désormais barrés.

De novembre?2020 à février?2022, du fait de la fermeture du col du Portillon, les habitants de Bagnères-de-Luchon ont dû, pour accéder au val d?Aran, en Espagne, faire un détour d?une vingtaine de kilomètres.

L?objectif officiel, selon les autorités, étant « d?intensifier très fortement les contrôles aux frontières » pour « lutter contre la menace terroriste, la lutte contre les trafics et la contrebande (drogue, cigarettes, alcools?) mais aussi contre l?immigration clandestine ». Aux préfets concernés de s?organiser. Ils ont eu deux mois.

Une mesure « ubuesque »

6 janvier 2021. Loin du Perthus, à quelque 300 kilomètres de là, il est 20 heures lorsque les premières automobiles sont refoulées au col du Portillon, l?un des points de passage concernés par cette mesure. Ce jour-là, il n?y a pourtant pas plus de neige que d?habitude. La frontière est fermée jusqu?à nouvel ordre, annoncent les gendarmes. Lutte contre le terrorisme. Les refoulés sont dubitatifs. Et inquiets. La dernière fois qu?on les a rembarrés comme ça, c?était au lendemain de l?attaque de Charlie Hebdo, quand, comme partout, les contrôles aux frontières avaient été renforcés. Ça aurait recommencé ? A la radio et à la télévision, on ne parle pourtant que de l?assaut du Capitole, à Washington, par des centaines de trumpistes survoltés, pas d?une attaque en France.

« Ça n?a l?air de rien, mais, deux fois cinquante minutes au lieu de deux fois quinze minutes, ça vous change une journée. » Michel, retraité

Comme il n?existe pas trente-six manières de matérialiser une frontière, Etienne Guyot, le préfet de la région Occitanie et de la Haute-Garonne, a fait installer de gros plots en béton armé et autant d?agents de la police aux frontières (PAF) en travers de cette route qui permet de relier Bagnères-de-Luchon à la ville espagnole de Bossòst, située dans le val d?Aran. Au bout de quelques jours, parce que les plots étaient trop espacés, les agents ont fait ajouter des tas de gravier et de terre pour éviter le passage des motos et des vélos. Mais les deux-roues ont aimé gravir les petits cailloux. De gros rochers sont donc venus compléter l?installation.

Il vous reste 87.29% de cet article à lire. La suite est réservée aux abonnés.

We would like to say thanks to the author of this write-up for this incredible content

Au col du Portillon, entre la France et l?Espagne, la frontière de l?absurde

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